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5. The role of Illusion in Symbol Formation

Karnac Books ePub



MUCH has been written by psycho-analysts on the process by which the infant’s interest is transferred from an original primary object to a secondary one. The process is described as depending upon the identification of the primary object with another that is in reality different from it but emotionally is felt to be the same. Ernest Jones and Melanie Klein in particular, following up Freud’s formulations, write about this transference of interest as being due to conflict with forces forbidding the interest in the original object, as well as to the actual loss of the original object. Jones, in his paper “The Theory of Symbolism” (1916), emphasizes the aspects of this prohibition which are to do with the forces that keep society together as a whole. Melanie Klein, in various papers, describes also the aspect of it which keeps the individual together as a whole; she maintains that it is the fear of our own aggression towards our original objects which makes us so dread their retaliation that we transfer our interest to less attacked and so less frightening substitutes. Jones also describes how the transfer of interest is due, not only to social prohibition and frustration and the wish to escape from the immanent frustrated mouth, penis, vagina, and their retaliating counterparts, but also to the need to endow the external world with something of the self and so make it familiar and understandable.

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Medium 9781942496984

Chapter 1: Using Questioning Strategies in the Classroom

Depka, Eileen Solution Tree Press ePub


Using Questioning Strategies in the Classroom

There are only so many hours in a day. We have approximately 180 days in the classroom with students, and in an average day, a teacher is likely to spend about five solid hours with students. Clearly, our goal is to make the best use of that time. We want to use practices and strategies that will most benefit our students. We aim to use processes and procedures that increase our ability to get the most effective use from our time and that of our students.

And how do we determine effectiveness? Standards and content are the focus of education in the early 21st century. We use both to identify what is important for our students to learn. Evaluating student progress helps us evaluate those targets important to the lessons we teach and to better understand our students’ performance levels. We evaluate data so that we can best meet all learners’ needs. For example, the 2015 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) data show little progress and low student achievement (NAEP, n.d.). Reviewing and understanding these components, which we do in this chapter, helps us create a systematic approach to lesson identification and development.

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Medium 9781782203131

Summary: The Clinical Chapters: Some Concluding Thoughts

Karnac Books ePub

Elda Abrevaya

In contrast to times when existing cultural representations of gender and sexuality led analysts to consider that homosexuality should be treated as a pathology, the theoretical and clinical work presented in this book clearly demonstrates that there is no special technique to be adapted to homosexual patients. The same psychoanalytic principles apply to all types of patients. However, for the heterosexual analyst, the analytic work with a homosexual patient can create some countertransferential difficulties, contributed to in part by his or her cultural representations about gender differences and requires their working through. As Ralph Roughton underlines, the analyst has to work with his assumptions and beliefs about what is sexually normative and be aware of his prejudices against homosexuality.

As we summarised in the Introduction, when the cases presented in this book were reviewed, we noted that there is no typical development of homosexuality. In each of them, the object choice can only be grasped by examining its psychogenesis, that is, the psychic history of the subject and its vicissitudes. When we examine Raquel Cavaleiro's male analysand, or Ayşe Kurtul's and Ester Palerm's female analysands, we note that they had consulted the analyst not for conflicts in the sphere of their sexual choice, but for their suffering from narcissistic wounds and depression. In the case of Cavaleiro's and Kurtul's patients where the relation with the object was undifferentiated, it does not, therefore, seem possible to speak of homosexuality as a sexual choice, as Martina Burdet would suggest. Here, confusion with the object is accompanied by other defences, such as infantile megalomania, or perversion. The object is significant to the extent that it provides narcissistic satisfaction.

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Medium 9781576754375

4 Strategy 1: Reduce Email Volume

Song, Mike; Halsey, Vicki; Burress, Tim Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Once Harold had chosen his goals, we began work on reducing his email volume.

“Okay, Harold, let’s start with the simplest and most overlooked email reduction technique: Send Less — Get Less.”

Harold shot me a look of disbelief, “How does sending less help? I mean, my problem is that other people send me too much email.”

“At first glance, it doesn’t seem like we have much control over email overload. But a closer look reveals something very different. Research shows that for every five emails you receive, three require a response.5 This means that for every five emails we send, people send back three. I call this the boomerang effect. So if you eliminate just one out of every five outgoing emails, you’ll begin to receive roughly 12% fewer emails.”

“Plus I’d save the time it takes to create one in five outgoing emails,” added Harold thoughtfully. “But, I’m pretty sure that most of my outgoing email is necessary.”

“I agree,” I said with a nod. “But most isn’t all. I’d be willing to bet you a coffee that 20% of your email doesn’t actually need to be sent.”

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Medium 9781605099224

Fourteen Our Journey in Review

McAfee, Barbara Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub



It is good to have an end
to journey toward, but
it is the journey that
matters in the end.

Ursula K. Le Guin


We began this journey into your full voice by defining what vocal presence is: the state where your words, facial expressions, body language, tone of voice, emotions, imagination, and spirit are all fully engaged and congruent in conveying your message.

• How frequently is this state available to you in your day-to-day conversations and presentations?

• When you look back at the Full Voice Assessment you took at the beginning of the book, what has changed in your voice? What’s the same?

Next we tackled some big ideas to set a context for the rest of our exploration: evolution, the oral tradition, and how your voice is directly connected to your identity.

• How has your identity changed since you started exploring vocal presence?

• Have you reclaimed parts of your identity through your voice?

• Have you left aspects of your identity behind?

• How has your story about who you are shifted? If so, how did that happen?

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