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9. Letters

Richard Gonzales UNT Press ePub
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3. Business, the African State, and Globalization in the New Millennium: Transnational Influences and Domestic Responses

Scott D. Taylor Indiana University Press ePub

3

BUSINESS, THE AFRICAN STATE, AND GLOBALIZATION IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM

Transnational Influences and Domestic Responses

INTRODUCTION

In Africa, the 1980s were a period marked by economic and political stagnation and exhausted statism, whereas 1990s ushered in sweeping changes. But if Africa throughout much of the 1990s was characterized by a liberalization and democratization imperative, despite very mixed results, events in the second half of that decade were paradigm-shifting, as both Africa and its international partners alike reacted to the failures of politics and of policy as well as to new exogenous forces. In other words, a high degree of learning occurred internationally, as well as at the national and societal levels, including that of business. The Washington Consensus began to unravel, and its decline accelerated in the wake of the 1997 financial crisis in Asia, which eroded confidence in its neoliberal prescriptions. By the start of the new millennium, a number of new developments had begun to transform much of the traditional thinking about African political economies, especially about the role of and prospects for the private sector. Thus, the beginning of the twenty-first century also laid down a significant marker for Africa and particularly for business on the continent.

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4. Case Histories

Steenblock M.S. D.O., David Basic Health Publications ePub

CHAPTER 4

Case Histories

Here in the United States, cord blood is FDA-sanctioned to treat a limited range of bloodborne diseases such as leukemia and Fanconi’s anemia, while isolated cord-blood stem cells are restricted primarily to research involving lab animals. This reflects a commonly held notion among U.S. doctors and scientists that cord-blood stem cells can only turn into red blood cells—or in cases in which bone marrow has been destroyed, into marrow that produces red and white blood cells—plus certain immune cells. However, accumulating evidence indicates that umbilical-cord stem cells can turn into a number of different cell types, benefiting neurologic conditions such as cerebral palsy, early to middle-stage multiple sclerosis, early stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and certain eye and blood vessel diseases and conditions. Many laboratory studies, for example, have been published in which hUCSCs have been turned into cells that express specific biomarkers (that is, telltale biological characteristics) common to liver cells, heart cells, neurons, glial cells, and others.

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4. Ravintsara

M.D., Ph.D., Georges M. Halpern Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

R

avintsara means good leaf in Malagasy (ravint means leaf and sara means good for you). The leaf of the tree is used in the central highlands of Madagascar as a folk remedy. Tea made with the leaves is used to treat stomachaches and headaches. People who have colds and bronchial ailments rub ravintsara oil onto their chests and throats and steam the leaves and inhale the vapors. The leaves are also used as condiments in certain culinary specialties. Malagasies have given the tree noble status on account of its aesthetic and therapeutic virtues. Ravintsara trees were planted on the estates of the noble families of Madagascar, and they can be found in many yards in the highlands. When the French colonists noticed how the Malagasies revered the ravintsara leaf, they planted ravintsara trees on the grounds of hospitals and missions so they, too, could take advantage of its medicinal benefits.

The last decade has witnessed a surge of interest in ravintsara oil as aromatherapists and herbal healers have discovered its therapeutic properties. Unfortunately, ravintsara oil is often hard to come by. Very little controlled cultivation of the oil is conducted in Madagascar. Producers of ravintsara oil have to obtain the leaves where they can. Usually that means roaming towns and villages and buying leaves from whoever will sell them. A few producers, including Phael-Flor, are planting and cultivating the trees for mass production of ravintsara oil, but we will have to wait a few years for the trees to mature and production methods to be established.

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Chapter 15 German Tonbilder of the 1900s: Advanced Technology and National Brand

Klaus Kreimeier John Libbey Publishing ePub

The beginning of ‘sound film’ is usually associated with the end of the 1920s, when silent films, performed with live music, were superseded by the sound-on-film process, in which the rendering of images and sound were synchronised on the filmstrip. However, we know that the idea to present sound and moving pictures simultaneously is older than film itself. In 1887, when Thomas A. Edison commissioned his employees to experiment with photographing moving objects and replaying them as ‘moving pictures’, he was thinking of an apparatus that would ‘do for the eye what the phonograph has done for the ear’.1 When Edison began selling his Kinetoscope machines, he marketed phonographs with listening tubes alongside. This combination was given the name Kinetophone. It permitted the visitors to the Kinetoscope parlours to experience hearing and seeing simultaneously. Contemporaries sensed that such innovative reproduction technologies, as an ersatz for live performances, had the potential to bring about an aesthetic and cultural revolution.

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