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Medium 9781780643328

8 Community-based Interventions for Preventing Chronic Non-communicable Diseases in Low-and Middle-income Countries

Aikins,; Agyemang, C. CABI PDF



Interventions for Preventing

Chronic Non-communicable diseases in Low- and Middleincome Countries



School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 2African

Population and Health Research Centre, Nairobi, Kenya

8.1 Introduction

Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a significant cause of premature morbidity and mortality globally. They have a huge impact on low- and middleincome countries (LMICs), where they often strike at younger ages and with more severe consequences. Current evidence points to a growing burden of NCDs in

LMICs with serious implications for economic development and growth [1]. The increasing burden of NCDs often disproportionately affects poorer populations, thereby widening health inequalities between and within populations. The principal NCDs contributing to the greatest burden of mortality globally are cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes. These conditions generally share modifiable and preventable lifestyle-related risk factors including unhealthy nutrition over a prolonged period, tobacco use, physical inactivity and excessive use of alcohol [2]. Effective strategies to prevent NCDs need to address these risk factors and the adverse social and physical environments in which they thrive. Such public health strategies can either target entire populations or high-risk individuals in the population, or a combination of both.

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Medium 9781855753426

Appendix 1: How Does a Social Dreaming Matrix Work?

Lawrence, W. Gordon Karnac Books ePub

What the discovery of the social dreaming matrix necessitated was a re-thinking of the nature of dreaming, questioning the received knowledge, and inventing a method for capturing dreams in a setting that is quite different from the accepted two-person therapeutic method that has held sway since the beginning of the twentieth century. The method is outlined below.

FIGURE 5: Chair arrangement for an SDM.

By dividing the number of participants and the hosts—or takers—by multiples of four, the pattern of chairs can be arrived at. All the chairs face towards the centre of the room. This helps to create a freer thinking enclosure by breaking-up the usual configuration of the conventional group setting and not having the participants face each other.

Nevertheless, it is often the case that people's responses to the dreams may be a form of interpretation in that they try to make sense of an image or narrative. However, rather than an ultimate truth, this will rarely be a finite statement but merely one idea that leads to many others.

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Medium 9781936763818

Chapter 10 Instant Versus Deferred Gratification

Ian Jukes Solution Tree Press ePub

The highest reward for a person’s toil is not what
they get for it, but what they become by it


Learning Attribute 7

Digital learners are looking for instant gratification and immediate rewards while simultaneously looking for deferred gratification and delayed rewards. Traditional educational practices have focused on deferred gratification and delayed rewards.

Let us try to explain why we’re talking out of both sides of our mouths at the same time. Deferred gratification and delayed rewards say that if you study hard, and if you keep focused, and if you behave, and if you attend class regularly, you’ll eventually be rewarded with a good letter grade, acceptance to a good school, or the chance for a good job. And we’d like to stress that it’s absolutely essential for students to have this kind of focus and discipline.

But at the same time, readers need to understand why digital culture resonates so strongly with these generations. Digital culture provides them with exactly what they need and want the most.

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Medium 9781910445129


Waddell, Margot Editora Karnac ePub

“O ar estava pesado com o coro de baixos

Logo abaixo da represa, sapos com ventres largos estavam alertas

Na relva; seus pescoços soltos pulsavam como velas. Alguns saltavam:

O salto e a queda eram ameaças obscenas.

Alguns quietos, serenos como granadas de lama, peidando por suas cabeças chatas.

Nauseado, me virei e corri. Os grandes reis do lodo

Estavam reunidos ali para vingar-se, e eu sabia

Que se mergulhasse minha mão, as ovas iriam prendê-la.”

Seamus Heaney

Oobjetivo do presente capítulo é explorar a natureza do estado mental conhecido como “latência” e sua função na personalidade em desenvolvimento da criança. Cronologicamente, o período caracterizado como “latência” corresponde aproximadamente aos anos de escola primária, dos cinco aos onze anos. Mas a “mentalidade da latência” pode estar presente posteriormente em qualquer idade, se, por razões particulares, a personalidade precisar continuar com um modo de funcionamento que, em termos de desenvolvimento, pertence a esses primeiros anos, ou precisar voltar a ele. Embora cada criança vá ter sua própria experiência dessa fase da vida, certos modos amplamente identificáveis de aprendizagem e de comportamento tendem a prevalecer, modos esses que estão estreitamente relacionados com as tarefas subjacentes à idade da criança. Inicialmente utilizarei exemplos clínicos para ilustrar os conceitos teóricos sobre a latência e algumas das ansiedades e problemas característicos da época. A última parte do capítulo explora alguns aspectos da literatura infantil, especialmente aqueles que emprestam mais vida e clareza às complexidades dos estados mentais da latência. Esses aspectos também salientam as formas criativas e imaginativas pelas quais histórias e faz de conta podem enriquecer a capacidade da criança para lidar com alguns dos obstáculos de desenvolvimento que são particulares a esse grupo etário.

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Medium 9781855750968

Discussion paper II. Changing systemic constructions of therapeutic relationships

Karnac Books ePub

Elsa Jones

Two factors, in particular, have allowed systemic therapists to pay attention to the therapeutic relationship. The first relates to changes in systemic theory. As Carmel Flaskas and Amaryll Perlesz point out in their Introduction, taking a second-order cybernetic stance, and incorporating feminist and social constructionist ideas, has obliged us to think about the presence and influence of the self of the therapist—and the relationships between therapists and clients—as significant elements in the process of therapeutic change. Secondly, as systemic therapy has become better established it has become possible to acknowledge the potential contribution of psychoanalytic thinking; the denial of its relevance which characterized the (largely psychoanalytically trained) family therapy pioneers can be replaced not only by the much-trumpeted “re-discovery of the individual”, but by attention to the inner worlds of therapists and clients.

As someone working in Britain, it is stimulating to note the similarity in the evolution of thinking about practice between our work here and that of our colleagues in Australia. However, while many—or some—of us may be doing things differently, it is also true, as regards therapy in general (Flaskas and Perlesz, Introduction) and supervision in particular (Maloney and Maloney, Chapter 10), that not enough is being written on it. This wide-ranging collection will therefore prove a stimulus to the practice and the writing of other systemic practitioners. Certain themes recur in all the papers in Part II; I discuss these below, with reference also to my own ideas and those of other European authors.

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