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Medium 9781576754498

8 Creating Vibrant New Markets That Serve Poor Customers

Polak, Paul Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

BAHADUR AND HIS FAMILY NEEDED ACCESS TO A VILLAGE DEALER to get good cucumber seeds and fertilizer and a low-cost drip system before they could start producing armfuls of fat green cucumbers. When the cucumbers were ready to pick, the family had to determine how and where they could make a good profit from their crop.

They could get the best price by selling directly to customers from a stand in the Mugling market, luckily only twelve kilometers away, but this took a day of time for Padam Maya Magar Thapa, Bahadur’s first wife. Or they could sell to hawkers. When we were stopped at an army checkpoint in Mugling, a twelve-year-old girl with patches on her dress gave us a persuasive pitch to buy cucumber slices wrapped in wet paper towels. (We didn’t buy.) We learned later that she was one of Bahadur’s salespersons.

Other hawkers with wooden pushcarts sell slices of cucumber through the windows of buses at bus stops. While they make a nice margin, hawkers have to eat their loss (literally) in the form of cucumbers left over at the end of the day. The downside of selling to hawkers is that it takes a lot of haggling, and sometimes in the end no deal is struck.

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Medium 9781855756106

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: S(A/): “Being (Res), jouissance and desire” (II)

Eidelsztein, Alfredo Karnac Books ePub

Today I will propose to revisit the logic—rather than the quotations—of what we discussed in our last class. In this sense and regarding the suggested title: “Being, desire and jouissance”, I shall propose a slight variation: “Being (res), desire and jouissance”. Without doubt I am thus introducing the Cartesian opposition res cogitans/res extensa.

Despite what I have just said, I will present to you some statements (as few as possible), taken from Lacan’s texts, and which I will use as the steps for my argument—except the first one, which has the structure of an axiom-, they can all be found in “Subversion of the subject …”

[…] every signifying chain prides itself on looping its signification (p. 349).

Every signifying chain—from the moral perspective of values— prides itself on looping its signification. And, obviously, every chain honoured with that pride will as a result, be finite, for it is honoured precisely in so far as its loop [circle] is closed. This is what we call “message”: when a chain loops on its signification. However, thepoint is that, in the context of Lacan’s teaching, that signification is of the Other, s(A). Nevertheless, we tend to conceive signifying chains as being infinite. I believe that almost all of us think that‘’S1-S2” is a formalized reduction of‘’S1-S2-S3…Sn”. So we must go slowly through this statement that I am proposing to you as an axiom.

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Medium 9780946439133

3. A Psycho-Analytic concept of the origin of Depression

Karnac Books ePub


GENERAL interest in the psycho-analytic psychopathology of depression may have been kept in the background for a long time, owing to the rapid development of interest in the psychopathological understanding of the less complex symptoms common in neurosis, such as anxieties, phobias, obsessions, etc. The psychopathology of schizophrenic symptoms where the mechanisms sometimes seemed obvious and apparent, but where psycho-analytic treatment was not then helpful, interested more analysts in the early days than did the psychopathology of manic-depressive symptoms. Nevertheless since 1911, when Abraham first discussed depression, the psycho-analytic psychology of normal sorrow, depression, mourning, and grief, and the psychopathology of abnormal depressions have gradually developed until now concepts have been worked out which are to a considerable degree new and can be stated simply. Such new concepts have been found to be of essential value in psycho-analytic attempts at investigation and therapy of depressed states regardless of the degree of severity, regardless of the sex, and more or less regardless of the age—children as young as two and one-quarter and adults in the sixth decade having been treated.

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Medium 9781780644608

20: Sustainable Mountain Hiking Practices in Isfahan, Iran

Richins, H.; Hull, J.S. CABI PDF


Sustainable Mountain Hiking

Practices in Isfahan, Iran

Farhad Moghimehfar* and Elizabeth A. Halpenny

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada


This chapter presents two case studies that examined the constraints experienced by individuals attempting to engage in environmentally responsible hiking and camping practices in the mountains of Iran. With a population of over 75 million people, Iran (also known as Persia) is located in Western Asia. Two-thirds of Iran is covered with mountain ranges, namely the

Zagros and Alborz.

Since the human settlement of Iran in the Lower Paleolithic era, people’s lives have been intertwined with mountains. Modern mountaineering as a sport and recreation

­activity started in 1836 and soon became a popular leisure activity ­(Barjesteh and van

Waalwijk, 2007). A considerable number of people participate in  mountaineering activities at levels ranging from family day hikes to large-scale expeditions. These mountaineering activities are planned by individuals, not-forprofit organizations, travel agencies, and governmental bodies (e.g. Iran Mountaineering Federation). The most popular types of mountaineering activities are organized by not-for-­ profit organizations (also known as

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Medium 9780253334114


Alfred C. Kinsey Indiana University Press ePub

The specific sources of the reported, recorded, and observed data utilized in making this volume are described in the present chapter. The use that we have made of the previously published studies on human sexual behavior is also described. Since the data reported in our series of case histories constitute an important part of this volume, the nature of those data is described in some detail in this chapter, and critical tests of the reliability and validity of the case history data are also presented here.

All of the case histories in this study have been obtained through personal interviews conducted by our staff and chiefly by four of us during the period covered by this project. We have elected to use personal interviews rather than questionnaires because we believe that face-to-face interviews are better adapted for obtaining such personal and confidential material as may appear in a sex history.1

Establishing Rapport. We believe that much of the quality of the data presented in the present volume is a product of the rapport which we have been able to establish in these personal interviews. Most of the subjects of this study—whatever their original intentions in regard to distorting or withholding information, and whatever their original embarrassment at the idea of contributing a history—have helped make the interviews fact-finding sessions in which the interviewer and the subject have found equal satisfaction in exploring the accumulated record as far as memory would allow. Persons with many different sorts of backgrounds have cooperated in this fashion. Females have agreed to serve as subjects and, on the whole, have contributed as readily and as honestly (p. 73, Tables 3–8) as the males who were the subjects of our previous volume. Apart from rephrasing a few questions to allow for the anatomic and physiologic differences between the sexes, we have covered the same subject matter and utilized essentially the same methodology in interviewing females and males.2

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