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Medium 9781565926998

7. ODBC and the DBI

Slice ePub May 29, 2014

Open Database Connectivity, commonly known as ODBC , defines a database-independent API. The ODBC Driver Manager supports the API and manages one or more plug-in drivers for talking to different types of databases. The architecture is shown in Figure 7.1.

Figure7-1.The ODBC architecture

Doesnt this all sound rather familiar? The ODBC driver manager and drivers are doing just what the DBI and its drivers are doing: defining and implementing a database-independent, application-programming interface.

This leads us to a whole bunch of questions: Whats the difference? Why not just use ODBC and not the DBI? Can the DBI and ODBC work together? What advantages does one have over the other?

Before we try to answer those questions, lets get some perspective by looking into the history and goals of ODBC and the DBI, and take a look at the Win32::ODBC module, which implements a direct interface to ODBC for Perl.

In the early 1990s, a consortium of vendors formed the SQL Access Group to support SQL interoperability across disparate systems. In October 1992 and October 1993, a major part of that work was published as a draft standard entitled "Call Level Interface, or CLI, which is another name for an Application Programing Interface, or API. However, the SQL Access Group CLI standard never really took off. At least, not in that form.

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Medium 9781931332934

70. Botulinum Toxin for Motor Disorders

Slice ePub March 06, 2015


Botulinum Toxin for Motor Disorders

David M. Swope, Ehsan Hadi, Mitchell F. Brin

Botulinum toxin (BoTN) is effective and often the primary and adjunctive therapy for a variety of diverse motor disorders manifested by dystonic and non-dystonic excessive muscle contraction and spasticity (Table 1), with the list continuing to grow. This chapter addresses the neuropharmacological and clinical aspects of BoTN.


The origin, structure, pharmacologic activity, and uses of BoTN have been extensively reviewed (1, 2). In essence, when botulinum neurotoxin is isolated from bacterial cultures, it is normally associated with non-toxic macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Administered parenterally for therapeutic use, the non-toxic proteins do not enhance the activity of the neurotoxin and may even interfere slightly. However, orally administered, they enhance its activity by protecting the neurotoxin from proteolytic enzymes in the gut.

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Medium 9781617837500

An Actress's Life

Slice PDF May 13, 2014

Medium 9781609945626


Slice ePub May 15, 2014

Medium 9780596003159

2. C# Language Reference

Source: C# Essentials
Slice ePub May 27, 2014

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