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Medium 9780596101640

Hack #34. Make Wise Medical Decisions

Bruce Frey O'Reilly Media ePub

Medical tests provide diagnostic screening information that is often misunderstood by patients and, sometimes, even by doctors. Understanding the probability characteristics called "sensitivity" and "specificity" can provide a more accurate and (sometimes) reassuring picture.

As a consumer of medical information, you have to make decisions about behavior, treatment, seeking a second opinion, and so on. You likely rely on medical informationnewspaper stories, your doctor's advice, test resultsto make those decisions. However, much of the medical information you get from your doctor has a known amount of error. This is especially true about diagnostic test results that indicate the probability that you have a certain condition.

This hack is all about using information about the characteristics of those medical tests to get a more accurate picture of reality and, hopefully, make better decisions about treatment.

To use medical test information wisely, we have to learn just a bit about what the concept of accuracy means for these tests. The four possible outcomes of medical tests, in terms of accuracy, are shown in Table3-11.

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Medium 9781847771254

A Note on Zola’s Method


A Note on Zola’s Method

The art of Zola is based on certain theories, on a view of humanity which he has adopted as his formula. As a deduction from his formula, he takes many things in human nature for granted, he is content to observe at second-hand; and it is only when he comes to the filling-up of his outlines, the mise-en-scène, that his observation becomes personal, minute, and persistent. He has thus succeeded in being at once unreal where reality is most essential, tediously real where a point-by-point reality is sometimes unimportant. The contradiction is an ingenious one, which it may be interesting to examine in a little detail, and from several points of view.

And, first of all, take L’Assommoir, no doubt the most characteristic of Zola’s novels, and probably the best; and, leaving out for the present the broader question of his general conception of humanity, let us look at Zola’s manner of dealing with his material, noting by the way certain differences between his manner and that of Goncourt, of Flaubert, with both of whom he has so often been compared, and with whom he wishes to challenge comparison.

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Medium 9781931332842

Chapter 2 : Some Workplace Spins Turn into Emotional Tornadoes

Vali Hawkins Mitchell Ph.D., LMHC Rothstein Publishing ePub


Some Workplace Spins Turn into Emotional Tornadoes

2.1 Defining Emotional Tornadoes

Just like a tornado of the weather variety, the outcome of an emotional tornado is often surprisingly destructive. The winds of these complicated forces can pick up you, beloved colleagues, friends, enemies, loved ones, communities, states, nations and in fact the entire world community and toss them about like a plastic cup. Reasonable, kind, hard-working individuals or entire systems can be relocated from a happy employment site right into an unemployment line with no references. A once vital person can be decimated and left languishing in a health care or mental health facility. Brilliant individuals can land in psychiatric or legal incarceration, alcohol and drug rehab, bankruptcy, divorce court, and even the grave. Emotional winds can swirl your co-worker into time-consuming child custody battles or a favorite boss into a fight for his or her personal or professional reputation. Emotional tornadoes can spin one person or entire systems. Just as the wind of nature isn’t very picky about location, emotional tornadoes are not subject to specific places or industries.

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Medium 9780596523695

1. Strings

Lucas Carlson O'Reilly Media ePub

Ruby is a programmer-friendly language. If you are already familiar with object oriented programming, Ruby should quickly become second nature. If you've struggled with learning object-oriented programming or are not familiar with it, Ruby should make more sense to you than other object-oriented languages because Ruby's methods are consistently named, concise, and generally act the way you expect.

Throughout this book, we demonstrate concepts through interactive Ruby sessions. Strings are a good place to start because not only are they a useful data type, they're easy to create and use. They provide a simple introduction to Ruby, a point of comparison between Ruby and other languages you might know, and an approachable way to introduce important Ruby concepts like duck typing (see Recipe 1.12), open classes (demonstrated in Recipe 1.10), symbols (Recipe 1.7), and even Ruby gems (Recipe 1.20).

If you use Mac OS X or a Unix environment with Ruby installed, go to your command line right now and type irb. If you're using Windows, you can download and install the One-Click Installer from, and do the same from a command prompt (you can also run the fxri program, if that's more comfortable for you). You've now entered an interactive Ruby shell, and you can follow along with the code samples in most of this book's recipes.

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Medium 9780596527419

4. Page Elements

Christopher Schmitt O'Reilly Media ePub

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