The clinical concept of the negative therapeutic reaction has been included in this book for a number of reasons. It is a concept of particular importance in the history of psychoanalysis, for it represents the clinical phenomenon chosen by Freud (1923b) to illustrate the workings of an ‘unconscious sense of guilt’ and to indicate the existence of what he conceived of as a special mental agency—the superego. Moreover, it is a concept widely used in clinical psychoanalysis, and significant papers have been written on the subject since Freud’s original formulation. Unlike such concepts as transference (chapters four and five) and acting out (chapter nine), it has not been extensively applied outside clinical psychoanalysis. This may be regarded as surprising in view of the fact that it would seem to be readily applicable without alteration to a wide variety of clinical situations.
The phenomenon of the negative therapeutic reaction in psychoanalytic treatment was first described and explained by Freud (1923b):
High achievement always takes place in the framework of high expectations.
—CHARLES F. KETTERING
Language forms the heart of instruction; thus, all Since language is also a distinguishing characteristic of English learners, educators must be sensitive to students’ language development. This opening chapter introduces common language embedded within instruction and, in doing so, affords teachers and school leaders opportunities to set realistic language expectations for students within grade-level, content-driven instruction. It helps explain how language impacts the performance of language learners from classroom to classroom, highlights the challenges English learners face every day in school, and offers a teacher-driven data source for decision making.
Organizing Principle: common language assessmemt enable teachers and school leaders to set and measure language expecations for language learners across classrooms.
Lead Question: How does common language assessment contribute to understanding the performance of English learners in school?