Many of the statistics used in business and quality improvement applications are those within the common repertoire of basic statistics, including the chi-square test (covered in Chapter5), t-tests (Chapter6), and regression and ANOVA (Chapter8 to Chapter11). However, other techniques have been developed for the specific needs of business and quality improvement applications, and those techniques will be the subjects of this chapter.
Index numbers are commonly used in business to measure the change in quantity or price over time for some good or combination of goods and services. One well-known example is the Consumer Price Index (CPI), which represents the average price of a quantity of consumer goods and services believed to be typical household purchases in the United States. The U.S. CPI is calculated monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor; its used as a measure of inflation and to calculate cost of living adjustments for pensions and wages. Although many criticisms have been made of the CPI, it has proven highly useful as a summary measure of the average cost of living and allows comparison across historical periods and geographic areas. Other countries that calculate a CPI or similar index include Canada, China, Israel, New Zealand, Australia, and many countries in Europe.
Dyhydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone produced primarily in your adrenal glands, which are located just on top of the kidneys. Your body converts DHEA into all other steroid hormonesespecially the sexual hormones estrogen and testosterone and corticosteroids. DHEA is produced in large amounts during youth and young adulthood, but peaks at age twenty, after which time it wanes. By the time you reach age seventy, you may experience a 90 percent reduction in DHEA levels.
Declining levels of DHEA in the body are associated with high cholesterol, heart disease, arthritis, and autoimmune disorders. There has been growing evidence that oral supplementation with DHEA may improve body composition, boost immune function, in crease mood and sexual drive, and increase lean body mass and muscle strength. There is also promise for DHEAs ability to improve memory and enhance mental function in older adults, but further research is necessary.
Adrenal GlandOne of a pair of ductless glands, located above the kidneys, which secrete hormones, including DHEA and epinephrine.
While we’re each looking to find more YESes in the Land of NO where we live and work, we mustn’t forget that others may be wanting a YES from us as well. How can each of us contribute to transforming the Land of NO into a World of YES? What can we do to find ways to say YES more often?
Look for what you like in people, places, situations, and ideas. For many of us, our natural inclination is to first notice what we don't like. It’s simply a habit — and habits can be changed. Make it a point to actively look for what you like, both at work and at home. Say, “YES, I like that,” more often.
Piggyback on other people’s YESes. Instead of saying, “YES, but … ,” learn to say, “YES, and here’s how I can see that working,” or “YES, and here’s how I can help make that idea or project even better.”
When you feel the urge to say NO to someone, stop yourself and take a break to reflect before you speak. What are your motives in wanting to say NO? What is getting in the way of your saying YES? Have a conversation with the person who’s asking for YES and share your concerns; see if he or she can address your issues to help change your NO to YES.
Partone of this book gets you started launching Flash, creating your own drawings, and transforming them into moving animations. Most animation work, though, takes place after you've got all the frames and layers in place. Like a film director slaving away in the cutting room, as an animator you spend most of your time testing, editing, and retesting your movie.
This chapter is your crash course in Flash animation editing. Here you'll learn how to reorganize your animation horizontally (over time) by cutting, pasting, and rearranging frames in the timeline. You'll also see how to reorganize your animation vertically by shuffling and restacking the layers you've added to it.
When you create an animation, you build it from frames and keyframes. Editing your document is a simple matter of moving, cutting, and pasting those frames until they look good and work well. You can perform these operations on individual frames or on multiple frames by combining them into groups, as you'll see at the end of this section.