Our lives, like those of other animals, are immersed in the temporal dimension. But human beings, unlike other animals, are aware of it: we have a “sense of time”.
What do we mean by sense of time? How do we develop such an awareness? How do we achieve a relatively consistent relationship to the temporal dimension of our existence? What happens to us if such a relationship is not properly established, or if it breaks down?
Rather than letting myself be drawn into the fascinating territory of philosophical speculations on these matters, I will focus here on the psychology of the development of the sense of time in the first months of the infant's life. In order to do this, I will refer to psychoanalytic concepts elaborated from child observation and from clinical work with adult patients. More specifically, I shall dwell on the parallel between the development of the sense of time in the child and her achievement of a sense of identity.
“All definitions of the self and of the sense of identity”, writes Rycroft, “inevitably include a reference to time” (Rycroft, 1968, p. 167). It seems to me that it is a necessary condition for time to exist as a subjective continuum, that the person experiencing it has developed a sufficiently stable sense of identity; and, conversely, for identity to be formed and maintained, time should have acquired its distinctive qualities (i.e., succession, duration, and irreversibility) so that under normal conditions it can be experienced as a constant flow from past to future via the present.
Is not sleep perhaps the true home of the self, like the sea from which mankind first emerged at the dawn of time …? But if that is so, how can man re-enter that other life and yet remain awake enough to know it?
Gabriel Josipovici (1979, p. 4)
The truth of art lies in its power to break the monopoly of established reality … to define what is real.
Herbert Marcuse (1977, p. 9)
What is social dreaming?
I shall try to clear a space and occupy a ground in which this liminal object—social dreaming—can come more clearly into view. To do so I have deliberately “bracketed off” and put aside the putative meanings of any given set of themes made available in any given matrix. I have made this manoeuvre—foregrounding the structural, functional, and experiential/transformational aspects of social dreaming while recessing the epistemological—in order to attend not to the traces left by the process of social dreaming but to the object itself. Furthermore, the eventual process that is social dreaming in fact problematizes any attempt to fix and stabilize meaning(s) generated by matrix. According to this reading of social dreaming, the medium is the message.
Now we come to the most important epiphany of all—the insight into your boss’s single biggest driver of behavior. In my experience, there is one fundamental motive that steers a boss’s actions. I call it “primary motivation.” If you had to pick just one motive that accounts for your boss’s behavior, how would you describe it? There are a number of common boss motives: job security, advancement, money, recognition, risk aversion, results orientation, complete control (ego), and a desire to be liked by everyone. Do any of these motives explain your boss’s behavior? Let’s take a look at each of these in more depth.
Your boss may be motivated by job security (fear of losing his job). He may do anything to hang on to his position—every action and decision is made with an eye toward “not rocking the boat.” Maybe he’s primarily motivated by getting ahead in the organization; all of his behaviors can be traced to his desire to get promoted or look good to senior management. It’s possible he is driven by wealth creation; everything he does is about the rewards—getting the highest rating or bonus possible. Perhaps he’s motivated by praise and recognition; in that case, he’s constantly posturing to be noticed by senior leaders. Maybe he’s so risk averse that he’ll never make a bold move; his approach is all about not making mistakes or attracting attention. It’s possible that he’s motivated by perfection; he’ll do anything to get specific results that meet his exacting standards. Maybe he has a need to be right or in complete control at all times (high ego, with a micro-managing style). Finally, he may be driven by a need to be liked by everyone, so he avoids conflict at all costs. Your boss may be motivated by one of these typical drivers, or he may have a more specific motive that underlies his behavior. Whatever it is, your job is to figure it out so you can use that insight to make adjustments in your working relationship.
The simplest formula for balance, success, and happiness I have found goes like this: Put God at the center of your life, recognize your duties and priorities, and then set up your day-to-day activities in accordance with those. A particularly helpful book for helping Catholic women do this in an organized fashion is A Mother’s Rule of Life by Holly Pierlot (see the Resource Guide on page 151). But there are other ways as well.
First and foremost, I think it’s important for mothers, especially those with young children, to recognize that they have been called to an active life and an active vocation, not a contemplative one. This means that while spiritual meditation, daily Mass, and lengthy Scripture studies are noble and worthy pursuits, they are not necessarily the particular ways in which God is calling you to a closer relationship with him during this stage in your life.
What God wants most from anyone at any stage in life is cheerful obedience to his will. The fact that a young family requires your near-constant attention is a pretty clear indication of God’s will for the ways in which you should spend your days. I once resolved to do some kind of spiritual reading every day. On the very first day, however, when I sat down with my copy of Holiness for Housewives by Hubert Van Zeller (see the Resource Guide, page 151), my two-year-old son took advantage of my distraction by attempting to flush his father’s silk tie down the toilet. I figured God was telling me to put down the book.
This chapter shows you how to build a Domain Name System (DNS) server using
BIND. When you finish this material you should understand how to install, configure, maintain, and troubleshoot a server for any domain you register. We’ll begin with an introduction to DNS, which you can skip if you’d rather move directly to the step-by-step installation and configuration section. If you run into problems, you may want to come back and read and/or review the earlier material.
If you do any research on the Internet’s DNS, you are certain to encounter the claim that DNS is the world’s largest database. Comparing it to a database like Oracle or
MySQL is misleading, though. In fact, DNS is the world’s largest distributed digital directory. Like an online telephone directory, you use it to match names with numbers—but with DNS, the numbers are the IP addresses of the multitude of servers connected to the Internet, including those that manage small web sites and gigantic server farms like Google and Amazon.