KNOWLEDGE about a disease called ‘Hypochondriasis’ dates from the time of Hippocrates, and ever since then it appears to have been a common illness, judging from the literature throughout the ages. At the time of Boswell, who himself suffered from it, hypochondriasis in England was so common as to be called the ‘English Malady’. There is a large psychiatric literature on the question as to whether hypochondriasis ever existed as a separate disease entity. Bleuler thought that all patients suffering from chronic hypochondriasis were schizophrenics. Raeke, Westphal, Sommer, Wolfsohn and later Schilder were all in favour of regarding severe chronic hypochondriasis as a ‘psychotic disease entity. Bleuler defined hypochondriasis as a condition consisting in ‘continuous attention to one's own state of health, with a tendency to ascribe disease to oneself from insignificant signs and even without such’. The severity of hypochondriasis varies a great deal and it may be valuable to differentiate the disease entity ‘hypochondriasis’, which is a very chronic psychosis, generally believed to be of bad prognosis, from ‘hypochrondriacal states’, which are more temporary: they may be psychotic or neurotic in origin. Hypochondriacal states are found in the neuroses and psychoses, as in hysteria and obsessional neurosis; in depressive and neurasthenic conditions; in schizophrenia; and also in the initial states of organic psychosis. They are common in adolescence and in middle age. Temporary hypochondriacal anxieties, for example, may arise when early infantile psychotic, particularly paranoid, anxieties are stimulated and have to be worked over again by the individual. This would explain why hypochondriacal anxieties frequently arise in phases of readjustment, for example at puberty or in middle age. The meaning of these hypochondriacal phases would be similar to the function which Melanie Klein attributes to the infantile neurosis, which she connects with the working over again of early psychotic anxieties.
Dhaka is more than just a city; it’s a giant whirlpool that sucks in anything and anyone that comes within its furious grasp. Around and around it sends them, like some wildly spinning fairground ride bursting with energy. Millions of individual pursuits constantly churn together into a frenzy of collective activity – an urban melting pot forever bubbling over.
Dhaka is a city in perpetual motion and the glorious chaos is perhaps best viewed from the back of one of the city’s half-a-million fabulously colourful cycle-rickshaws, which fight for space on the city’s overcrowded streets with taxis, buses, auto-rickshaws and even horse-drawn carriages.
We can’t guarantee you’ll fall for Dhaka’s many charms, but sooner or later you will start to move to its beat and when that happens Dhaka stops being a terrifying ride and starts to become a unique blend of art and intellect, passion and poverty, love and hate.
Department of Computer Science, College of Computing and Informatics
University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA
Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract—We will talk about some interesting open problems in computational science. Most of them are new. These problems are related to number theory, geometry theory, combinatorics, graph theory, linear algebra and group theory. They are easy to state and understand although they are very difﬁcult to be solved by researchers in mathematics or computer science. It seems to us that it is very challenging to ﬁnd suitable mathematical methods or efﬁcient algorithms to deal with them.
Keywords: Computational number theory, computational geometry, formula, integer sequence, algorithm
I. I NTRODUCTION
The development of computational science continues in a rapid rhythm, some open problems are made clear and simultaneously new open problems to be solved come out.
Pinwheels, already a bit of a whimsical pattern, have in this version finally come unstuck entirely and flown away under their own power.
Fabrics from 3 different colorways are used in the pinwheels. Each colorway has 3–5 different prints using similar colors while still contrasting with each other. (They should contrast with the other colorways but not too much within the colorway.)
The neutral fabric used in the pinwheels can be a solid or a subtle print. It should contrast with all colorways and the background.
The background fabric can be a solid or a subtle tone-on-tone print. It should contrast with all colorways and the neutral in the pinwheels. If you are making the lap-, twin-, or queen-size, avoid large, bold, or other prints that will make the seams obvious when pieced.
An Olfa Rotary Circle Cutter makes cutting circles easy (see Resources, page 63).
∗Minimum 40½″ wof (width of fabric) required.
∗wof = width of fabric ∗∗Background assembly instructions follow.