Melanie Klein's phenomenology of the paranoid–schizoid and depressive positions is a developmental as well as a clinical theory. It is, however, a too limited developmental theory, as strictly defined by Klein's writings, and many clinician-theorists, including myself, are attempting to significantly expand Klein's phenomenology of developmental usefulness (Alexander, 1997; Ogden, 1986). To extend the developmental aspects of Klein's phenomenological psychic states, which are dynamic in their dialectic of regressive and progressive psychic motions, her death instinct metapsychology must be, at least partially, eschewed. The concept of primal trauma, similar to Balint's (1979) “basic fault”, can be accepted as a foundation for pathology as opposed to the notion of pure psychic conflict that is exclusively related to instinctual impulse.
For Klein, movements from the paranoid–schizoid to the depressive position state of mind are fundamental to primary developmental growth in self-integration, as well as the driving force of a continuing psychic evolution in an individual's way of thinking that takes place over the course of a lifetime. As long as primal trauma does not disrupt this natural developmental change, there is a vital shift in a self- and world perception that occurs in each of us in our primary years. This shift in psychic perspective becomes a progressive realignment of our emotional blueprint, as it effects our interpretation of our experience in the external world. The shift from the paranoid–schizoid to the depressive position is a progressive developmental shift due to the ability in the depressive position to tolerate all psychic parts of oneself, both loving and hating parts, so that an ambivalent state of good-enough love for the other as a whole (with good and bad parts) can be tolerated. Prior to the depressive position, the disowning of one's hate for a loved object places one in the dilemma of cutting off from any desired and needed object at the point of anger and disappointment. Wandering from one person to another, following each disappointment in love and in the idealised perfection of the “other” results in a fragmentation of experience that leaves us to exist in a fragmented self-state. Without primary sustained relationship in one's life, nothing is sustained.
When we think about organizations, and particularly about organizations that are presenting a problem to us for consultation, we immediately think about stages in the life cycle of an organization and its members. We are trying to find out what areas of conflict are triggered for individuals and for the organization in negotiating change, as they pass through these stages. We also consider the developmental stages in the career development and personal development of individuals within the company.
A general hypothesis about the developmental stages of an organization is helpful in organizing our initial interviewing around the problem; the feedback we receive will form the basis of a more focused hypothesis around issues specific to that organization and its members.
For example in the diagram given below, three phases in the organizational life cycle are described.
At the beginning, the organization develops from the inspiration of a few people. This is called the pioneering phase. The organization at this stage is marked by loyalty and warmth, little formality and fast growth.
I will not tie this city's future to the dysfunction in Washington and Springfield.
—RAHM EMANUEL, mayor of Chicago
A revolution is stirring in America. Like all great revolutions, this one starts with a simple but profound truth: Cities and metropolitan areas are the engines of economic prosperity and social transformation in the United States.
Our nation's top 100 metropolitan areas sit on only 12 percent of the nation's land mass but are home to two-thirds of our population and generate 75 percent of our national GDP. Metros dominate because they embody concentration and agglomeration—networks of innovative firms, talented workers, risk-taking entrepreneurs, and supportive institutions and associations that cluster together in metropolitan areas and coproduce economic performance and progress. There is, in essence, no American (or Chinese or German or Brazilian) economy; rather, a national economy is a network of metropolitan economies.
Cities and metropolitan areas are also on the frontlines of America's demographic change. America's population—and its workforce—will be much more diverse in the future than at present, and soon no single race or ethnic group will be the nation's majority. Many of our metros are already living that future. In fact, every major demographic trend that the United States is experiencing—rapid growth, increasing diversity, an aging demographic—is happening at a faster pace, a greater scale, and a higher level of intensity in our major metropolitan areas.
Going to court in a foreign country accused of professional misconduct, in a language you dont understand, while counterclaiming deliberate deception on the part of the former employer, is not a relaxing exercise. Your fate is debated in front of you by people in suits and strange outfits, and you dont understand a word of what is going on.
I awoke the following week with trepidation.
To my delight, Edith was extremely cool. She was mysteriously attractive in a manner almost unbefitting a lawyer. The offices were sufficiently formal and intimidating. She appeared too sweet to be a lawyer—somehow I couldnt picture her fighting my case in court. She had reviewed the core documents and believed the case was comparatively simple: In Holland you cannot simply ask someone to leave your office, accuse them of misconduct, offer them a new contract, oblige them to sign it without stating any genuine reason, and threaten them with a court case. This is a fairly open-and-closed case of a breach of Dutch employment law—we will have to go into detail about the reasons and context, but essentially your case is very good. In terms of obeying protocol, they messed this up, and that is your trump card.