You may be perfectly happy using Elements only in Quick Fix mode. And that's fine,
as long as you understand that you've hardly scratched the surface of what the
program can do. Sooner or later, though, you'll probably run across a photo where
your best Quick Fix efforts just aren't enough. Or you may just be curious to see
what else Elements has under its hood. That's when you finally get to put all your
image-selecting and layering skills to good use.
Elements gives you loads of ways to fix your photos beyond the limited options in
Quick Fix. This chapter guides you through fixing basic exposure problems, shows you
various ways of sharpening your photos, and most importantly, helps you understand
how to improve the colors in your photos. You'll also learn how to use the amazing
Smart Brush tool that lets you apply many common fixes by just brushing over the
area you want to correct.
Colors that are located near one another in the color circle have similar effects and belong to specific color groups. An image only becomes interesting when the colors within it contrast with each other. Colors that lie on opposite sides of the color circle are known as complementary colors and have highly differentiated tones. The most well-known and obvious color pairings consist of one primary and one secondary color. These are: red/green, blue/orange, and yellow/violet. Complementary colors mutually boost each others effects but need to remain in proportion to one another in order to be effective. The emphasis placed on each of the colors is determined by its grayscale value. These values can nowadays be measured using machines, but nevertheless rely on a trained eye and appropriate skill if they are to be judged properly. Goethes Theory of Colors, published in 1810, posited harmonic proportions for complementary colors that are still valid today. Goethe felt that red and green relate to each other in proportions of 1:1, while blue and orange harmonize at 2:1. He valued violet and yellow (with their significant difference in brightness) with 3 : 1. These values allow pairs of colors to enhance each others effects while retaining balance within an image. Consistent harmony and balance can, however, have a slightly stuffy, uninteresting effect.
Once you’ve selected a row, column, or the entire table, you can apply extra formatting or create a chart (Chapter 9). However, changing a part of a table isn’t exactly like changing a bunch of cells. For example, if you give 10 cells a hot-pink background fill, that’s all you get—10 hot-pink cells. But if you give a column a hot-pink background fill, your formatting change may initially affect 10 cells, but every time you add a new value in that column, it also gets the hot-pink background. This behavior, in which Excel recognizes that you’re changing parts of a table, and applies your change to new rows and columns automatically, is called stickiness.
Sorting and Filtering a Table
As you’ve seen, Excel tables make it easier to enter, edit, and manage large collections of information. Now it’s time to meet two of the most useful table features:
Sorting lets you order the items in your table alphabetically or numerically according to the information in a column. By using the correct criteria, you can make sure the information you’re interested in appears at the top of the column, and you can make it easier to find an item anywhere in your table.
The way that we understand sexuality will obviously affect the way we interpret sexual issues brought to the consulting room. In this chapter, I describe the way that, in practice, if not always in theory, psychoanalytic practitioners now think about sexuality in metaphorical and symbolic terms. The development of object relations theory has led to a shift away from thinking of sex in terms of instinctual aim towards an increasing emphasis on the qualities of relatedness to the object (Parsons, 2000). This shift enables us to think about sex in terms of relating and relating in terms of sex. I suggest that, rather than thinking of some kind of biological “bedrock” to which either sex or relating can be reduced, we need to think in terms of metaphorical and symbolic representation as a kind of irreducible currency of meaning. In my view, the aim of analytical psychotherapy is to create a climate in which meaning can be elaborated through the use of metaphorical language, thus enabling patients to bring their sexuality into relation with other aspects of their lives. This two-way approach is able to explore interpersonal relating in terms of metaphors of sex, while simultaneously exploring the way actual sex reveals relational dynamics in metaphorical terms. This way of thinking fosters an interpretive stance I call “interpreting towards” and “interpreting away from” sex.