You have looked at your school’s current attitudes and practices with regard to family engagement and examined how your school communicates with families. This general information has helped you understand the climate in your school. Now it’s time to gather the specific data that will allow you to formulate a plan for improving family engagement in your school. Recommendations from publications such as Beyond the Bake Sale (Henderson, Mapp, Johnson, & Davies, 2007) and A New Wave of Evidence (Henderson & Mapp, 2002) can help frame family-engagement goals and plans. Another excellent place to start is with the PTA Implementation Guide.
An excellent means for acquiring data is the National Standards for Family-School Partnerships implementation guide (National Parent Teacher Association [NPTA], 2007). The guide is focused on helping schools meet the six standards the PTA has identified for school-home partnerships:
When Freud finally decides, in 1923, to present the theory of the Oedipus complex which he had envisaged twenty-six years before, he locates the basis of the complex in ‘original bisexuality’. He adds that it is this which prevents a clear view of the earliest relations and object choices, and which makes it ‘still more difficult to describe them intelligibly’ (Freud 1923a: 22).
Now, if what is original in bisexuality remains obscure, the culmination of infantile sexuality—the Oedipus complex—is conversely, for its part, clearly described by Freud. Moreover, it could be considered that with this description of 1923, Freud actually puts forward a norm, which he deems objective, the ethical dimension subsequently flows from it by means of superegoic identifications. But the Oedipus itself is seen as a fact, biologically grounded, one that acquires its own determinism through the development of the first flowering of sexuality. And, we repeat, in this concluding moment of sexuality it is to bisexuality that he ascribes the role of the fundamental structural principle of the complex. However in his conclusion, on the two sides of the full Oedipus, positive and negative, and on the crucial issue which causes identifications to go one way or the other, he writes: ‘The relative intensity of the two identifications in any individual will reflect the preponderance in him of one or other of the two sexual dispositions’ (Freud 1923a: 23). We can see that the norm consists in presenting a full picture marked by conflict and determined psychically (the Oedipus is considered by him to be a primal fantasy), the final result being a question of a relation of forces shaping the singularities of an individual history.
Aby rozwiza problem, gdy nie istnieje jasny algorytm obliczenia poprawnego rozwizania, uciekamy si do znajdowania drg. W tym rozdziale omwimy dwa pokrewne podejcia do znajdowania drg jedno dotyczce drzew gier i drugie, odnoszce si do drzew wyszukiwa. Metody te opieraj si na wsplnej strukturze, mianowicie na drzewie stanw, ktrego korze reprezentuje stan pocztkowy, a krawdzie oznaczaj moliwe ruchy, ktre przeksztacaj dany stan w nowy. Poszukiwania takie s niemaym wyzwaniem, poniewa nie oblicza si caej struktury, w ktrej zachodz, a to z powodu lawinowego przyrostu stanw. Na przykad, w warcabach istnieje okoo 51020 rnych konfiguracji szachownicy [Schaeffer, 2007]. Zatem drzewa, w ktrych odbywa si wyszukiwanie, s budowane na danie, stosownie do potrzeb. Dwa podejcia do znajdowania drg mona scharakteryzowa nastpujco:
Dwu graczy wykonuje naprzemiennie ruchy, ktre modyfikuj stan gry, wychodzc od jej stanu pocztkowego. Potencjalnie istnieje wiele stanw, w ktrych kady gracz moe wygra. Mog te istnie stany remisowe, w ktrych nie ma zwycizcw. Algorytm znajdowania drogi maksymalizuje szanse, e gracz wygra (lub doprowadzi do remisu).