In Utah, two-story houses display their symmetrical faces of stone against a mountainous backdrop. In Indiana, woodcarvers show chains and caged balls amazingly made out of one piece of wood with the aid of only a pocketknife. In Pennsylvania, New Year’s Day is greeted with the making of sauerkraut and pork. These things are folk objects, or more accurately, the material products of folkways.
Folk objects materialize tradition. Typically learned by imitating the work of community or family members and by participating in local customs, folk objects exhibit the repetition and variation common to other forms of folklore such as tales, songs, proverbs, and riddles. Of course, folk objects show the interconnections common to all forms of folklore. A house, a carving, or a food dish reflects shared experience, community ideas and values connecting individuals and groups to one another and to the environment. To stress these interconnections, the term “material culture” is often used to point to the weave of objects in the everyday lives of individuals and communities.
There's only a small group of tools that statisticians use to
explore the world, answer questions, and solve problems. It is the way
that statisticians use probability or knowledge of the normal distribution
to help them out in different situations that varies. This chapter
presents these basic hacks.
Taking known information about a distribution and expressing it as a
probability [Hack #1] is
an essential trick frequently used by stat-hackers, as is using a tiny bit
of sample data to accurately describe all the scores in a larger
population [Hack #2].
Knowledge of basic rules for calculating probabilities [Hack #3] is crucial, and you
gotta know the logic of significance testing if you want to make
statistically-based decisions [Hacks #4 and #8].
Minimizing errors in your guesses [Hack #5] and scores [Hack #6] and interpreting your
data [Hack #7] correctly
are key strategies that will help you get the most bang for your buck in a
variety of situations. And successful stat-hackers have no trouble
recognizing what the results of any organized set of observations or
experimental manipulation really mean [Hacks #9 and #10].
In a movie titled The Gods Must Be Crazy (1980) a Bushman from Africa finds an empty Coca-Cola bottle that someone threw from an airplane, and brings it to his tribe. The Coke bottle that dropped magically from the sky is considered a generous gift of the gods. They have never seen such a useful present that the gods sent them. They use it to pound tubers into mash, to smooth snake skin while curing it, as a stamp to apply decorative ink to leather, and as a musical instrument where you blow across the top to make a whistle. It seems that when people do not know of the original purpose of an object, they make creative uses of it.
But as time goes by the useful present from the gods becomes an evil object for this culture, which so far had no possessions and no ownership. Suddenly everyone is in need for this precious object and unfortunately there is only one bottle. So fights and competition start in this peaceful happy tribe, until finally they decide to get rid of that corrupting object.
It is a noticeable feature of current work with children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa that children are now being diagnosed as young as eight or nine years of age. The reasons for this are not clear. The incidence of anorexia nervosa in younger children may be the same as, or similar to, that in the past. Ear-lier diagnosis could be attributable to an increase in specialist services for children, with anorexia nervosa consequently being recognized in children at a younger age. On the other hand, the numbers of younger children with anorexia nervosa may have increased, possibly because of children's exposure at a younger and younger age to fashion and glamour magazines where their idols are presented both as desirably stick-thin and as role models to be emulated.
In a climate of consumerism, competition, and emphasis on fashionable appearance, young children have become increasingly vulnerable. Recent research does identify the negative influential effect on young girls of under-weight glamorous celebrities, such as fashion models, actresses, and pop singers, and on growing boys of sports and film stars (Hargreaves & Tiggemann, 2002; Tiggemann, 2005). Speaking of a picture of a very skinny model, “Images like this didn't make me an anorexic. But they helped” (Freeman, 2000, p. 1).
This appendix lists various online sources of Linux information.
Although all these documents are available electronically on the Internet,
many are also available in printed form.
Linux distributions often include some of this documentation in the
distribution itself and make them available on the runtime system. As
mentioned in the text, documentation on a Linux system can be found in a
number of places, including Unix manual pages, GNU Info pages, and HTML
help documentation (such as that displayed by the KDE Help Center).
Most Linux distributions store documentation on individual programs,
such as README files and release notes, under the
/usr/share/doc directory. If you have
the kernel source installed, the documentation included with the kernel
will usually be found in the directory /usr/src/linux/Documentation.
For information of a more interactive nature, the following sources
are commonly used by Linux users:
Most newsgroups relevant to Linux are under the comp.os.linux hierarchy, but many also
are regional, distribution-specific, or dedicated to open source