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Medium 9780253352149

Nine The War in Northern Waters

H. P. Willmott Indiana University Press ePub

THE OUTSET OF WAR provided evidence of the elements of constancy and change in naval warfare. In past conflicts British sea power had been used in three roles: to enforce the close blockade of enemy bases and ports, to clear the seas of enemy warships and trade, and to carry the war in which Britain found itself to enemy overseas possessions. The mine and the submarine by 1912 had forced the British Navy to abandon close blockade in favor of observational blockade, but with reference to the elements of constancy, the outbreak of war in August 1914 saw British sea power set about its historic tasks. In clearing the seas Britain’s positional advantage astride German and Austro-Hungarian sea-borne lines of communication with the outside world ensured that enemy oceanic trade very quickly dwindled. The first six months of war saw 383 German and Austro-Hungarian steamers of 978,152 tons detained, sunk, or captured by the Allies and another 788 ships of 2,970,458 tons seek the security of neutral ports. The two Central Powers lost the services of some 61 percent of their merchant fleets in this single, opening phase of the war.

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Medium 9781937875695

Labor and Pay

Kang, Kang Xuepei Texas Review Press ePub

Qin Yang (edited by Kang Xuepei)

Chairman Mao said, “It is necessary for young intellectuals to go to the countryside and receive re-education from the poor and lower class peasants.” Many years ago, we zhiqing went to the countryside for re-education, which was, in fact, reform through labor. Many years later, I still remember well the harsh reality of living in a remote area with the local peasants. In those years, we all had to struggle to survive.

Years later, after graduating from university, I went to work for a Chinese company. At the time, a person’s background and connections played a big role in the size of the pay packet. Not fair, I used to complain. Then I came to the United States and worked for a chemical company. At first, I naively thought that America’s famed meritocracy would translate into a fair pay system: the harder one worked, the higher the reward. I quickly learned, however, that office politics blithely transcended cultural norms and expectations. Everywhere was the same; as the Chinese saying goes, “all crows are black.” After giving the matter considerable thought, I have concluded that the only place where the fair pay system actually worked was the poverty-stricken countryside in China in the 1960s and 1970s, when one was paid according to the work points he or she earned throughout the year. The amount of reward depended on the level of effort expended. Very fair, I still think.

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Medium 9780253003263

2 Worldviews

John Llewelyn Indiana University Press ePub

Presented by Wittgenstein in the Philosophical Investigations is the idea that nominal, referential, and predicative representation presupposes a non-representational purpose or point (Witz).1 Can the same be said of the closely related if not identical idea defended by Heidegger in Being and Time according to which the apophantic “as” of assertion or “judgment,” for example the assertion “This hammer is too heavy,” is a graft upon a hermeneutic “as,” for example the experience of this hammer as too heavy expressed not by putting this finding into words but just by putting the hammer down and picking up one that is less heavy? Heidegger does claim to be giving an analysis of Dasein or human being as such, though he stresses that the starting point of that existenzial analysis is the concrete existenziell situation of inquiry in which he and his presumed reader are involved, the circumstance of philosophical questioning to which an ancient tradition says wonder gives rise. Wittgenstein describes imagined conceptual schemes in order to show that ones different from those with which we are familiar would be intelligible if certain very general facts of nature were imagined different (PI 230). Indeed, would not imagining the latter natural differences already be imagining the former conceptual ones? Such imaginings are designed to lead us away from a philosophical conception that attributes a piston-rod rigidity to conceptual necessity. Apparently absolute freestanding necessity is conditioned by historically relative circumstances. This holds for the necessity of Wittgenstein’s own assumption that the so-called purely logical connections have their roots in social practices. So-called “pure” logic is always already “applied.” Pure logic is unemployed logic, so that the famed vacuity of the formal relations that mathematical logic represents in its truth-tables is the vacation of language, language on holiday (PI 38). Logical meaning or emptiness of meaning, it could be said, is the offspring of rhetorical use. What that use is can be shown only by describing actual or imaginary cases, as Wittgenstein does in his later writings. So what I have just called an assumption is not an assumption at all, for it is supported by the album of cases which those late writings construct. To expect him, independently of the cases within which we know our way about, to speculate whether it is parochial to say that representation lives on what is unrepresentable, is to expect him to join ranks with the philosophers whose errings he puts down to their desire to philosophize in a vacuum. The remarks on the alleged crystalline purity and hardness—“rigor”—of the logical “must” made in the Philosophical Investigations are paralleled in Being and Time by criticism of the notion of universal validity (Geltung) and bindingness revived by Lotze (SZ 155) but going back at least to the Organon of Aristotle in which logos came into the philosophical ken of the Greeks primarily as assertion, and assertion is regarded as the primary locus of truth. It is important to observe that this is a statement about philosophy. Otherwise one will find it puzzling that Heidegger, especially in his work after Being and Time, can explore the Greek thinking of logos, for example the poetic thinking of logos in Heraclitus, for clues as to how today there could be a beginning of a kind of thinking other than that for which Aristotelian logic and its modern successors provide the norms.

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Medium 9781855756847

CHAPTER THREE: The influence of conjoined twins on each other

Vivienne Lewin Karnac Books ePub

Jeanne Magagna and Gloria Dominguez with contribution by AlessandraMarsoni

Introduction

In 2004, Vivienne Lewin wrote: “Nothing appears to have been written in the psychoanalytic literature about the psychological consequences of being a conjoined twin or the surgical separation of the twins” (Lewin, 2004, p. 178). This chapter describes a psychoanalytic, observational study of the relationship between conjoined twins, Tom and Peter, during 18 months of hospitalization, both before and after they were separated. This study highlights the intense attachment and closeness between conjoined twins and shows how the absence or presence of certain personal and constitutional characteristics have a crucial impact on the way identical external traumas of separation and loss are endured. The concepts of splitting and projective identification are also illustrated; for example, we see how personality growth in Peter is enhanced by his ability to face and struggle with a conflict-ual situation and respond to it in an active way that can be noticed by the caregivers in hospital. On the other hand, Tom lived in identification with his more active sibling's cry for help and he existed in identification with Peter's assertiveness for food and people's company. This fostered slowness and weakness in the development of Tom's more passive personality. In addition, we explore how the conjoined twins, Tom and Peter, develop and use attachments to each other and to the caregivers to work through their pain linked with multiple surgical interventions and their multiple losses. These losses include the loss of an attached body that is experienced as integral to each twin's sense of being; the loss of each other in terms of the intense closeness of the other twin; and the repeated losses of either mother or father as they travelled to and from the rest of the family in Portugal. This conjoined twin study shows how very early the capacity for empathy can develop in young babies, particularly in conjoined twins. Since the conjoined twins developed from one ovum and shared the same womb, it is interesting to note how nature and nurture impact on one another as the twins develop.

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Medium 9781591200000

The Top 12 Benefits of Adaptogenic Power

Mindell RPh PhD, Earl Basic Health Publications ePub

1.   Increases your energy, endurance and vitality.

2.   Enhances your bodys own natural defense system, providing deep immune support; increases resistance to a wide range of stresses; reduces the frequency of common infections and speeds recovery.

3.   Helps you cope with all areas of stress and protects your body from damage, especially that which is stress induced.

4.   Promotes cardiovascular health by strengthening your heart and circulation.

5.   Assists in recovery and healing from chronic illness, surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It can help build bone marrow and restore normal blood levels that had been suppressed.

6.   Enhances your brain function, helping preserve neurological function, reducing free radical damage to neurons and improving brain circulation.

7.   Aids sleep.

8.   Boosts sexual energy by increasing vital essences and circulation.

9.   Slows the aging process by providing a potent and diverse antioxidant effect and activating other antioxidant systems in the body. Modulates cellular reduction/oxidation reactions, reduces oxidative stress, neutralizes and prevents free radical damage and promotes more efficient oxygen use. Better oxygen use means less oxidative damage, which translates to better and longer health.

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