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|Dr. Joe Schwarcz||ECW Press||ePub|
It all comes down to the fascinating little insect called dactylopius coccus.
When Hernn Cortz arrived in Mexico in 1518, he was intrigued by the beautifully colored Aztec fabrics he saw there. The source of the dye appeared to be seeds on the surface of certain cactus plants, but closer scrutiny revealed that they were not seeds at all. They were little bugs. Today, we know these insects as cochineal and the dye they yield as carmine. Montezuma, the Aztec king, was so fond of wearing robes made of carmine-dyed fabric that he imposed a tax upon his subjects to be paid in dried cochineal insects.
The pregnant female cochineal bug produces the brilliant red dye that became the first product ever exported from the New World to the Old. Soon, Europeans were dying their wool and silk with the insect extract. Maybe the most memorable use of cochineal was the bright scarlets for which the Gobelin tapestries of Paris became famous.
Producing the dye is not an easy business. The female insects, which feed on the red cactus berries and concentrate the dye in their bodies and in their larvae, are scraped off the cactus and dumped into hot water, where they instantly die. They are then dried in the sun and crushed into a powder, which is added to water or to a water-alcohol mixture. For fabrics, a mordant, such as alum, which binds the color to the material, is generally used. Carminic acid, the active coloring agent, is one of the safest existing dyes, and it is commonly used in foods and cosmetics. Candies, ice cream, beverages, yogurt, lipstick, and eye shadow can all be colored with cochineal.See All Chapters
Wikszo fanw Excela nie kupuje najpopularniejszego na wiecie arkusza kalkulacyjnego tylko po to, aby tworzy adnie sformatowane tabele. Interesuj ich raczej jego funkcje obliczeniowe, ktre pozwalaj zredukowa dugie supki liczb do postaci sum i rednich. Wykonywanie tych oblicze to pierwszy krok na drodze do uzyskania znaczcych informacji z nieprzetworzonych danych.
Excel oferuje kilka sposobw konstruowania formu: mona budowa je rcznie albo powoywa do ycia kilkoma klikniciami myszy. W niniejszym rozdziale poznasz wszystkie te techniki. Zaczniemy od zbadania podstawowych skadnikw kadej formuy, a nastpnie przyjrzymy si reguom uywanym przez Excel podczas ich obliczania.
Najpierw najwaniejsze: do czego su formuy w Excelu? Formua to seria instrukcji matematycznych, ktre umieszcza si w komrce, aby wykona pewien rodzaj oblicze. Niektre instrukcje s proste i nakazuj, na przykad, podsumowanie kolumny liczb, a inne s na tyle zoone, e uywaj zaawansowanych funkcji statystycznych w celu wyznaczenia trendw i ustalenia prognoz. Wszystkie formuy maj jednak pewne cechy wsplne. Oto kilka kwestii, o ktrych warto pamita:See All Chapters
|Sid Steward||O'Reilly Media||ePub|
users think of Although most users think of Acrobat as a GUI interface to PDF documents, you can also automate and extend it. Some automation features are built into Acrobat, especially Acrobat 6 Professional, and you can create your own automated processing sequences using a variety of other tools.
Automate repetitive tasks using Acrobat, such as converting folders of Word documents to PDF.
If you have a folder of PDFs that you must alter or convert, consider using Acrobat's built-in batch processing feature. After you create a batch sequence, you can use it to process large quantities of PDFs hands-free. You can also apply a batch sequence to a single PDF, which means you can create batch sequences for use as macros.
Acrobat batch processing isn't just for manipulating PDF. You can use it to convert Microsoft Office documents, PostScript files, or graphic bitmaps into PDF documents. Or, use batch processing to convert PDF documents to HTML, PostScript, RTF, text, or graphic bitmaps. Many of these options are not available in Acrobat 5. In Acrobat 6, you can also apply OCR to bitmaps or refry PDFs to prepare them for online distribution [Hack #60] .See All Chapters
|Charles Rycroft||Karnac Books||ePub|
The only environment of which the analyst of a psychoneurotic has any certain knowledge is the setting within which psychoanalytical treatment takes place, this setting comprising the room in which the analyst and patient meet and the analyst himself in it, and the analyst, instead of allowing the patient to have any effect on his room or himself, adopts a particular technical procedure, viz. interpretation, in order to prevent any effects that the patient intends from actually occurring. As a result, it could be argued, the analyst is doubly disqualified from discussing the effect of the psychoneurotic on his environment. First, he never sees the environment in which the patient lives out his illness and therefore never knows what effect his patient actually has, even though he may know a lot about what the patient is trying to do to his spouse, parents, friends, etc., and may also know a lot about what the patient imagines he is doing; but the analyst has no direct knowledge of what the effects actually are, or of what resistance or compliance the psychoneurotic^ efforts actually encounter. Secondly, he adopts a technique, that of interpretation, which precludes ‘effects on the environment’, at any rate in the ordinary, expected sense of the phrase, from occurring within the environment in which he does see the patient.See All Chapters
|Tuttle, Dave||Basic Health Publications||ePub|
GINSENG AND ASTRAGALUS
Ginseng is one of the most popular herbs in the world, while astragalus is relatively unknown in Western countries. Both of these herbs have important benefits for the athlete, ranging from increased endurance and strength to enhanced immune function. Like Rhaponticum carthamoides, ginseng and astragalus work through nonhormonal pathways, so they can be used for extended periods. But it takes a while for you to see noticeable effects.
Ginseng has been the subject of a wide variety of research experiments in Western countries, both in animals and in humans. The results of these studies are all over the board for reasons that are discussed in this chapter. Nearly all of the experiments with astragalus have been done in China, where the herb is even more popular than ginseng. The bottom line from these studies is that ginseng and astragalus will help you perform better in your sport—provided that you take enough of a standardized extract for a long enough time.See All Chapters
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