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Medium 9780819870360

3. The Dropout

Mary Lea Fsp Pauline Books and Media ePub

Six-year-old Edith astonished everyone by quickly moving to the head of class that first year of school. That was to become her permanent position throughout her student years. Edith did not succeed without effort, but because she was a “go-getter,” as she defined herself. It was at school that she felt most at home.

Perhaps because Edith was the youngest of the seven Stein children, she felt a need to prove her abilities. Sometimes her enthusiasm got the best of her. One teacher had to remind little Edith to patiently await her turn to be called on for answers. Several times she had skipped up the aisle toward the teacher waving her hand, “I know it! I know the answer! Just ask me!”

Her family and teachers always rewarded Edith’s schoolwork with praise that embarrassed her. She preferred to work quietly, secure that she knew the correct answers and that she wrote intelligent reports.

“Turn, toward me, please! Really, Edith, do you have to begin reading so early in the morning?” Rosa was trying to comb her younger sister’s hair, but the child was so fascinated by her history book that she paid no attention to the plea.

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Medium 9780253016430

2 Islam in the Lives of Ordinary Muslims

Mark Tessler Indiana University Press ePub

IN ORDER TO fully understand the way that ordinary citizens think about Islam’s place in government and political affairs, it is important to understand as well the degree to which, and the ways in which, Islam plays a broader role in people’s lives. The extent and scope of Islamic practice, involvement in Islamic study groups, and other personal religious activities have varied over time in the same way that the strength of Islamist movements and the interest in political formulae with an Islamic dimension have varied. Moreover, religion is by no means absent from the lives of men and women who do not believe that Islam should play an important role in government and politics. On the contrary, Islam is one of the most important factors shaping the overall character of Middle Eastern Muslim societies. Even many Christians in the region say that the civilization of which they are a part, and with which they identify, cannot be understood without reference to Islam. The way that Islam has shaped, and continues to shape, society and culture in the Middle East and North Africa and elsewhere in the Muslim world is nicely described by Bernard Lewis in The Shaping of the Modern Middle East:

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Medium 9781574411522

9 Money

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter nine



et’s talk about what got many of us in prison: money.

First, TDCJ inmates are not paid. No matter how hard we work, for how many years, we do not receive a penny. Various groups have tried to convince Texas lawmakers to pay inmates a tiny daily stipend. Texas is one of only two or three states that does not pay its inmates. But it takes a courageous legislator to tell his constituents, “Yes, I know these guys robbed and raped and sold drugs and carjacked—I still think we need to pay them.”

The legislator might be risking political suicide before he could explain the benefits of making sure that by paying inmates, you could ensure that many don’t come back. That would make paying inmates cost efficient, on both monetary terms and humanitarian grounds, because many of us would then not commit the murders and robberies that leave so many innocent victims in our wake. But those benefits are lost in the hazy, blood-red world created by prosecutors bent on convictions now in exchange for misery later.

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Medium 9780596006648

20. Pivot Tables

Matthew MacDonald O'Reilly Media ePub

Creating neat, informative summaries out of huge lists of raw data is a common challenge. And while Excel gives you all the tools you need to create such summaries, the actual work of writing formulas, cutting and pasting information, and organizing your totals into a new table can be extremely tedious. Even worse, this approach isn't very flexible. For example, once you've created the perfect summary that compares, say, sales in different regions, if you want to compare sales across different product lines or different customers, you'll need to start from scratch and build a whole new report.

Fortunately, Excel has a feature called pivot tables that can solve all these problems. Pivot tables quickly summarize long lists of data. By using a pivot table, you can calculate summary information without writing a single formula or copying a single cell. But the most notable feature of pivot tables is that you can arrange them dynamically. For example, say you create a pivot table summary using raw census data. With the drag of a mouse, you can easily rearrange the pivot table so that it summarizes the data based on gender or age groupings or geographic location. This process of rearranging your table is known as pivoting your data: you're turning the same information around to examine it from different angles.

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Medium 9780596005603

10. Working with Files

David Sklar O'Reilly Media ePub

The data storage destination of choice for a web application is a database. That doesn't mean that you're completely off the hook from dealing with regular old files, though. Plain text files are still a handy, universal way to exchange some kinds of information.

You can do some easy customization of your web site by storing HTML templates in text files. When it's time to generate a specialized page, load the text file, substitute real data for the template elements, and print it. Example 10-1 shows you how to do this.

Files are also good for importing or exporting tabular data between your program and a spreadsheet. In your PHP programs, you can easily read and write the CSV ("comma-separated value") files with which spreadsheet programs work.

Working with files in PHP also means working with remote web pages. A great thing about file handling in PHP is you can open a remote file on another computer as easily as you can open a file that sits on your web server. Most file-handling functions in PHP understand URLs as well as local filenames. However, for this feature to work, the allow_url_fopen configuration directive must be enabled. It is enabled by default, but if you're having problems loading a remote file, check this setting.

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