Supervision is indicated and in many cases indispensable everywhere that people work with people and where relationships between people are an essential part of the work. This includes the entire psychosocial area, education from child care to schools, and the whole area of care of the sick. Beyond these it is applied in hierarchical fields of superiors and subordinates and in teams of colleagues on an equal footing.
The need for supervision stems from the fact that we all have a tendency to allow our own very particular mental-emotional disposition— made up of our fears, expectations, and current state—to influence our professional relations with other people, in this way following our transferences. This can lead to serious misapprehensions, false interpretations of situations, or entangled interactions. Situations of this kind may considerably impair a person's ability to work. Supervision can help to understand such situations and find solutions for them.
The Swiss professional association for supervision, organisational consultancy, and coaching (BSO) gives the following general definition of supervision: “Supervision is intended for individuals and groups or teams of staff. It concerns itself with concrete questions arising from the everyday professional world of the participants and also with questions of cooperation between people in various roles and functions, areas of work and levels of hierarchy. It is the aim of supervision to improve the working situation, working atmosphere, work organisation and competence related to specific tasks. It is designed to foster practice-centred learning and the quality of cooperation” (quoted from Belardi, 1998, p. 44).
deas for drawings originate from many sources, just as do pieces of a quilt. They might emerge from the depths of an artist’s emotional memories and fantasies or from a draftsman’s powers of observation. The drawings that have been selected for the past three chapters have been expressionistic, emotional, and have come from inner memory as much as a reporter’s observations. Throughout the
ﬁrst several decades of his career, Biggers’s images were deep and somber impressions of the downtrodden, tragic expressions of the human condition. When asked about this characteristic feature of his early work, Biggers explained that he felt that it was absolutely necessary to show his feelings about what happens to people in poverty. “This to me is what art is all about—showing the spirit of man struggling above the mundane, above the material, above suffering.”1
The inﬂuence of Viktor Lowenfeld can perhaps be understood by reviewing
If there is one domain permeable to the most diverse sexual fantasies, encompassing a veritable catalogue of them for public use, it is certainly language. It was still necessary for a semiolo-gist to explore this, which is what Pierre Guiraud has done (1978).99 Libido, we learn, designates desire in all its forms, and is only secondarily restricted to the sexual domain. This specific instance only reflects a general rule which gives many terms a double status, both general and specific. Eros, the universal principle of attraction, becomes the god of sexual attraction. Thus, Freud was not—as he has been called—someone obsessed with sex; he only followed a course on which language had preceded him long before. Sexuality becomes the paradigm of all relations of desire. It is thus, indeed, that we should still understand things today, with psychoanalysis included in the reckoning.100 Let us bear in mind this observation:
An enormous amount, no doubt most of the words in the language, potentially comprise a sexual image which the slightest context suffices to put into effect. (Guiraud 1978: 109, LT’s translation) 101
Like jQuery UI, jQuery Mobile has many different UI elements. Many of these are based on
common mobile UI elements, and are created in the standard jQuery Mobile way: you write
semantic markup and then apply a data attribute to the element, and jQuery Mobile enhances the
element upon initialization.
jQuery Mobile makes extensive use of two standard jQuery development patterns: the
plug-in and the widget.
The jQuery plug-in pattern is a way of extending jQuery itself, enabling you to add
custom methods. You can then call your custom method just like you would any other jQuery
method. The jQuery plug-in pattern is discussed in detail in the jQuery documentation. If
youre not familiar with the jQuery plug-in pattern, I highly recommend you read about it
and adopt it whenever it is appropriate. I use the jQuery plug-in pattern on a daily basis
in my development tasks, and in the context of a jQuery Mobile application, it provides a
handy way of encapsulating application and page initialization functions and data
Once leadership commitment is established, corporations need to implement their sustainability strategy through appropriate organizational structures, systems, performance measures, rewards, culture, and people. This alignment of strategy, structure, and management systems is essential for companies in both coordinating activities and motivating employees (see our model [Fig. 1.7] on page 46). In this chapter I discuss:
The organizational structure around sustainability issues often entails organizing activities and resources spread throughout many locations.1 Corporations must consider whether key resources and activities should be centralized or decentralized and decide on a level of central control versus business unit autonomy. These decisions must be appropriately aligned with corporate culture. The decision to either centralize or decentralize an organizational structure can depend on several contextual factors, including: 86
Larger companies, operating in multiple industries and multiple geographic locations, face more challenging environments, which often lead to a more decentralized organizational structure. The advantages of decentralization often include greater flexibility and increased responsiveness. Specific local expertise about markets, competitors, and customers provides valuable knowledge that could translate into innovative and efficient solutions. A more decentralized decision-making process gives managers autonomy and can create an environment that is often more conducive to experimenting and developing new ideas.