Working with masochistic patients reveals a broad spectrum of pathology. These patients exhibit a mix of symptoms and unconscious conflicts that differ widely, yet all converge around phantasies of suffering. The analyst encounters masochistic pathology within both the paranoid–schizoid position (Klein, 1946) and the depressive position (Klein, 1935). The particular anxieties and motivations of these developmental experiences colour and shape the patient's masochistic style.
There are patients who suffer deep masochistic despair and who, upon close clinical examination, prove to be experiencing primitive states of loss, guilt, and envy. Rather than using masochistic compromises to ward off depressive fears, these patients are defending against paranoid–schizoid anxieties.
The Kleinian developmental view
The infant begins life within competing neurological states, psychological and physical tensions, somatic and cognitive sensations, and fluctuating exchanges with internal and environmental stimuli. From the very start, the infant seeks out the object in order to bring about a subjective sense of organization, discharge, and understanding, at first in more primitive ways and later with more sophisticated expression and intent. These conditions of mind and body are innate and, with the phantasies created through complex internal relationships between the ego and the object, make up the emerging substrates of what we term the “self”.
QuickBooks can zip you through the two basic ways of distributing invoices and other sales forms: on paper and electronically. But within those two distribution camps, you can choose to send your forms as soon as youve completed them or place them in a queue to send in batches. For sporadic sales forms, its easier to print or email them as you go. But when you generate dozens or even hundreds of sales orders, invoices, or statements, printing and emailing batches is a much better use of your time.
When you have workhorse transactions that you enter again and again, QuickBooks can memorize them and then fill in most, if not all, of the fields in future transactions for you. For transactions that happen on a regular schedulelike monthly customer invoices or vendor billsthe program can remind you when its time to record the transaction, or even add the transaction without any help from you. But you can also memorize transactions that you use occasionally, such as estimates, and call on them only when you need them.
How do we teach people how to supervise others? The multiplication of courses, and requirements for super-vision qualifications are fairly new. We used to trust counsellors and psychotherapists to “just know” how to supervise. When looking for a supervisor we searched out someone with experience and a good reputation, perhaps someone who used the model we were comfortable with, who was willing to take on the role. That was how I found my first supervisor, and how I started to do it myself.
Then, after training, having supervision, and practising in a solution-focused (SF) way for some years, I learned more about SF supervision at BRIEF (www.brieftherapy.org.uk) in a two-day course. I went on doing that with my supervisees. Eventually, the world wagged a finger and said, “Two days is not long enough to be properly trained in supervision”. So I completed a longer university module, based on the person-centred and Hawkins and Shohet (2006) models. I appreciated the tutors’ input, enjoyed the company of the rest of the group, did my best with the work, and passed comfortably. But the course seemed to make supervision unnecessarily complicated, and I have always been a fan of KISS—Keep it
Now that I’ve covered the basics of Mail in Setting up and Using Mail in iOS 8 just previously, it’s time to look at the new tricks that Mail has learned in iOS 8. Let’s take a look at what’s new, including swipe gestures and a dockable compose pane ①.
① Mail in iOS 8 has a few new features, such as gesture actions, which you can see in play at left above, and setting aside the compose pane, which you can see docked at the bottom here.
Mail has had swiping gestures for a while, but iOS 8 expands the options.
② To mark a message as unread, swipe its preview to the right to reveal the necessary button.
Note: If these gestures don’t work as described or you want them to work differently, change them in Settings > Mail, Contacts, Calendars > Swipe Options.
③ To see additional messaging options for a preview, swipe it partly left and tap More.
④ Swipe a preview fully left to archive or trash its message.
Composing a message, but need to look at another message to, say, copy an address? You can drag the title bar (where it says New Message or the subject) to the bottom of the screen to dock the message out of the way ⑤.
Within the last three years—a bank failure—a motor accident—long severe illness of my son, and this thing called depression. Now we are really quite hungry.1
—JENETTE BERESFORD TO CHARLES BOETTCHER, MAY 12, 1932
In 1930 most Coloradans—or at least most of the official spokespersons—would have denied that their state was suffering from the Great Depression. “Look at The Denver Post and the Rocky Mountain News,” they might have told a visitor, “as fat as ever with advertising. Does that show a state in trouble? Look at the employment rate, higher than that in the rest of the country. The Depression may be a problem for the industrialized East, but it isn’t for us. Our resources protect us. Our climate protects us. It won’t happen here.”
Such bravura was short-lived. By late 1931 the entire state was in trouble, as farm commodity prices fell and trade slowed. By 1932 Denver’s bank clearings were less than half those in 1929. The economic disaster of the 1930s hit Coloradans especially hard because many of them had struggled during the 1920s. As in other parts of the Rocky Mountain West, agriculture and mining had been depressed since the end of World War I, leaving many people without surplus wealth to fall back on. The twenty years between 1920 and 1940, two decades of reduced income and limited opportunities, shaped a society that was like a hibernating bear: sluggish and resentful of change.