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IX: Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms

Karnac Books ePub

By MELANIE KLEIN

INTRODUCTION

THE present chapter is concerned with the importance of early paranoid and schizoid anxieties and mechanisms. I have given much thought to this subject for a number of years, even before clarifying my views on the depressive processes in infancy. In the course of working out my concept of the infantile depressive position, however, the problems of the phase preceding it again forced themselves on my attention. I now wish to formulate some hypotheses at which I have arrived regarding the earlier anxieties and mechanisms.2

The hypotheses I shall put forward, whk. relate to very early stages of development, are derived by inference from material gained in the analyses of adults and children, and some of these hypotheses seem to tally with observations familiar in psychiatric work. To substantiate my contentions would require an accumulation of detailed case material for which there is no room in the frame of this paper, and I hope in further contributions to fill this gap.

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Medium 9781855756212

Chapter Twenty Three: Unconcluding reflections

Alapack, Richard J. Karnac Books ePub

One last raking through the ashes … The substance of the book is now complete. But it does not conclude. I cannot even wind down. Because why? It glares with significant absences. Important topics not treated include: the death of a child which is grief writ large; an individual’s homesickness, most powerfully expressed by asylum seekers turning into exiles and expatriates, as racism mushrooms across the globe; euthanasia, a grief-riddled phenomenon as shabbily treated by the guardians of the social order as suicide; abortion, that leaves two people vulnerable to grief and regret; torture, shamefully legitimized by academia’s finest minds on rational—but not heartfelt—grounds; men and women who are suffering shame at being the Face of the Disease of AIDS … even as they slowly die; and poverty’s unremittingly ugly grief which I merely touch upon by citing Stuffed and Starved (Patel, 2008).

In this historical “moment,” poverty is indeed the harbinger of the most acute anguish still to come. Two hundred million neighbours are starving even as the price of rice and petrol has risen from high to bizarre and the wide gap between the destitute and the wealthy has become a Grand Canyon. An implicit metaphor in this book is this: while our neighbours are destitute and dying of starvation, the rational community flounders. It is handicapped by fatally flawed rationalistic thinking and therefore incapable of balancing concern with greed. The poor did not create the economic crash of 15 September, 2009, but it has worsened their plight.

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Medium 9781881052432

10. Organizational Culture and Acculturation

Cox, Taylor Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In this chapter we will consider how the culture of organizations and the processes of member socialization and acculturation combine to explain certain effects and implications of cultural diversity in workgroups. First, organizational culture will be explained. Then, the closely related processes of organizational socialization and member acculturation will be explained. Next, we will consider how these three organizational factors interact with the culture identity of organization members to determine employee behavior and individual career outcomes. Finally, in line with the other chapters of the book, we conclude with a set of propositions that summarize the major points presented.

The concept of culture was defined in Chapter One as the system of values, beliefs, shared meanings, norms and traditions that distinguish one group of people from another. A group’s culture is manifested in what members of that group think, believe, understand, and do. As the discussion in Chapter Four made clear, boundaries of culture groups may be defined on the basis of many dimensions, including nationality, socioeconomic class, gender, and racioethnicity. Likewise, the organization itself may be specified as a group boundary.

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Medium 9781855754102

CHAPTER TWO. Frustrating network meetings

Arnkil, Tom Erik; Seikkula, Jaakko Karnac Books ePub

It would be hard to find a professional—be it a doctor, a therapist, a teacher, a social worker, a counsellor, a rehabilitation professional, a mental health nurse, and so on—who has never been in a network meeting. Multi-professional meetings and assemblies with clients, family members, and other parties are so common that there are many who ask whether this is all worthwhile. Network meetings may wind up in frustrating shilly-shallying, instead of being the ground for new ideas and solutions. There are many who have just about had enough. However, boundary-crossing is not likely to be on its way out; nor is the need to meet and negotiate.

We would like to ask the reader:

•  have you attended network meetings where, at some manifest level, the discussion is about the client and his/her problem and, at some other level, there is a competition going on over who is competent to define the case;

•  have you been in network meetings where the parties try to define the common problem—the problem common for all—as if from a bird’s-eye view, and you somehow can’t express your own subjective view, nor can anyone else;

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Medium 9781855752641

8. A primitive psychic structure

Rosenfeld, Herbert A. Karnac Books ePub

What is interesting about this seminar is the attempt to put the patient’s complex personality structure into focus; an attempt to understand the difficulties of handling a particular analytic relationship.

In this case, Rosenfeld refers to a psychic structure that though highly primitive must not be confused with an infantile structure, something with which we psychoanalysts are more familiar

The patient in question is so much lacking a sense of separate-ness that he is almost physically interpenetrated with the analyst; for him, separations are perceived as lacerating occurrences affecting his body.

Defences against perceiving a relationship of dependency are so violent that they impede normal modes of communication and transference.

Resulting from a condition of traumatic birth, the patient nurtures a desire to return to the womb; he employs defences and communications in which projection of the self onto others predominates, here becoming a special form of intrusion into the analyst’s mind and body.

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