This chapter covers several topics that relate to basic statistical
techniques. For the most part, these recipes build on those described in
earlier chapters, such as the summary techniques discussed in Chapter 8, and join techniques from Chapter 14. The examples here thus show additional ways to
apply the material from those chapters. Broadly speaking, the topics
discussed in this chapter include:
Techniques for characterizing a dataset, such as calculating
descriptive statistics, generating frequency distributions, counting
missing values, and calculating least-squares regressions or
Randomization methods, such as how to generate random numbers
and apply them to randomizing a set of rows or to selecting individual
items randomly from the rows
Techniques for calculating successive-observation differences,
cumulative sums, and running averages.
Methods for producing rank assignments and generating team
There are two ways to employ
grep. The first examines files as follows:
grep searches for the designated
regexp in the given file (filename). The second method of
employing grep is when it examines standard input. For example:
In this case, the cat command will display the contents of a file. The output of this
command is piped into the grep command, which will then
display only those lines that contain the given regexp. The two commands
just shown have identical results because the cat
command simply passes the file unchanged, but the second form is valuable
for grepping other commands that alter their input.
When grep is called without a filename argument
and without being passed any input, it will let you type in text and will
repeat it once it gets a line that contains the regexp. To exit,
At times, the output is remarkably large and hard to scroll through
in a terminal. This is usually the case with large files that tend to have
repetitious phrases, such as an error log. In these cases, piping the
output to the more or less
commands will paginate it so that only one screen of text is shown at a
REST stands for Representational State Transfer. To
understand what it means, consider a simple web-based social
A user visits the home page of the application by typing the
address in the browser.
The browser submits an HTTP request to the server.
The server responds with an HTML document containing some links
The user types her status in a form and submits the form.
The browser submits another HTTP request to the server.
The server processes the request and responds with another
This cycle continues until the user stops browsing. Except for a few
exceptions, most websites and web-based applications follow the same
pattern. Lets see how this application is related to REST.
What the user types into the browser at the start of the
previous interaction is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). Another
commonly used name for this is a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). URI is
a more generalized term that you can use to refer to either a location
(URL) or a name.
Coreen’s mother bathed her in wealth and the promise of more wealth: “When I die, you’ll have everything/’ Coreen had heard these words ever since she could remember. They mystified her. They made her feel that she ought to have everything, that everything was possible, and that one day she would have it all.
At the same time, Coreen was told she already had everything. She had every advantage material wealth could bring. She lived in a mansion with her own suite of rooms. She had housekeepers, tutors, activities, playmates. The message she received was that she had no lacks.
Someday she would have everything, and she had everything now. One conclusion Coreen drew was that her life was filled with everything, that she went from less of everything to more of everything, and someday she would find most of everything.
“I walked around, my head filled with everythings, lots of everythings, all animated. Animations of everythings. Lesser and greater everythings of all kinds. I would meet people and classify them as this or that everything. Likewise activities. This activity would be that kind of everything, that activity this kind. Everything was some type of everything. I couldn’t do or find anything that wouldn’t be one sort of everything or another/’
Object relation Gestalt therapy (ORGT), as developed in the writings of Gilles Delisle (1998, 2004) has become an influential model of therapeutic intervention, particularly in Quebec and in Europe. In recent years, a large number of therapists have been trained in ORGT, or have at least been introduced to its principal concepts through a series of seminars and didactic activities offered to mental health professionals. ORGT can be defined as a treatment of contact failures within various domains of experience by means of a hermeneutic dialogue: the approach was developed for the treatment of pathological personalities. This rigorous therapeutic model has substantial theoretical support and satisfies Mahrer's (1989) criteria for coherent psychotherapeutic models: a theory of human nature, a theory of psychotherapy, and a set of concrete operational procedures.
Delisle (2008) has shown that recent research in the neurosciences has given some support to the application of the ORGT model in the clinic. But in spite of this non-negligible validation, ORGT, along with several other psychodynamic and humanist models, has remained largely outside the mainstream of evidence-based psychotherapy.