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Medium 9780596002145

2.1. Command-Line Options

Yukihiro Matsumoto O'Reilly Media ePub

Ruby does what you'd expect it to do. It is highly consistent, and allows you to get down to work without having to worry about the language itself getting in your way.

Like most scripting language interpreters, Ruby is generally run from the command line. The interpreter can be invoked with the following options, which control the environment and behavior of the interpreter itself:

Used with -n or -p to split each line. Split output is stored in $F.

Checks syntax only, without executing program.

Changes directory before executing (equivalent to -X).

Enables debug mode (equivalent to -debug). Sets $DEBUG to true.

Specifies prog as the program from the command line. Specify multiple -e options for multiline programs.

Specifies pat as the default separator pattern ($;) used by split.

Displays an overview of command-line options (equivalent to -help).

Overwrites the file contents with program output. The original file is saved with the extension ext. If ext isn't specified, the original file is deleted.

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Medium 9781576753705

14: What’s Mine Is Mine

Bob Seidensticker Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

THE COMMISSIONER OF THE U.S. PATENT OFFICE has been widely quoted as saying in 1899, “Everything that can be invented has been invented.” How could he have said this at a time when the telegraph and railroad were maturing, the telephone and electric industries were rapidly growing, and the skyscraper and automobile were just beginning? The answer is that he didn’t make the statement. The closest any patent commissioner seems to have come to this is speculation in 1843 that we might at some point reach an end of innovation—but only because of the furious rate of innovation at that time.

Intellectual property protection, such as patents for inventions and copyrights for books, music, and other creative products, has been an important driver of innovation since patents were first issued over five hundred years ago. The intellectual property issue most in the news at this writing is the use of peer-to-peer (P2P) sharing over the Internet. The Napster file-sharing service was an early P2P innovator. These networks have been judged as having substantial legitimate uses and are therefore legal—though their users may well break the law. Music studios have complained that these networks are causing them to lose sales, although the sales statistics are ambiguous and the actual impact is unclear.

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Medium 9781610910484

CHAPTER 2 - Corporate Water Management

Peter H. Gleick Island Press ePub

Peter Schulte, Jason Morrison, and Peter H. Gleick

Water is an essential input for industries and economies around the world. It is used to cool industrial processes, to dilute contaminants, as a solvent, and as a key ingredient in many products, among other uses. Industrial water use and wastewater discharge can adversely affect nearby communities and ecosystems. For example, improper wastewater discharge can severely pollute recreational water bodies, contaminate drinking water supplies, and make water unusable for other needs. Excessive groundwater pumping increases pumping costs for local growers. Large water withdrawals can also take water away from other uses and exacerbate water-quality concerns by further concentrating contaminants.

Despite these concerns, water has only recently risen to the forefront as a strategic concern for many companies around the world. Emerging corporate practice and research suggest that the environmental, political, and social realities of the 21st century mean that environmentally and socially responsible corporate water management is not only a moral responsibility for companies but also increasingly an integral part of ensuring business viability and reducing business risk. The strategic decision to proactively manage water-related risks is driven by five primary motivations:

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Medium 9781576759042

38. Scaffolding Stage IV Organizations

Joseph Jaworski Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub


Our institutions are facing profound change and rising complexity, accelerating at a scale, intensity, and speed never experienced before. As the economic foundations of our world are transformed from more stable to dynamic patterns, the nature of leadership must change as well. To succeed in this new environment, institutional leadership must pay attention to the tacit Source of knowledge, the deep Source from which profound innovation occurs.

Organizations led by people with this quality of knowing, from line leaders to the very top, will flourish in the decades to come. Because of their success, they will become “living examples” of what is possible in the face of accelerating complexity and high turbulence. These Stage IV organizations will play a leading role in establishing a more comprehensive worldview, a belief system adequate for civilization to rise above the challenges of our time.

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Medium 9781780490908

Chapter Three - Psychoanalytic theories, methods, and concepts

George Bruns Karnac Books ePub


Psychoanalytic theories, methods, and concepts

Psychoanalysis as it is today can be seen as a complex discipline of different theories, concepts, methods, and of areas where it can be applied. As we view it from the standpoint of the sociology of science, it is appropriate to call it a discipline and not a theory. Though it is true that psychoanalysis developed on the basis of a “primal” theory, the psychoanalytic theory of drives, it has spread with the further development of the drive theory and the creation of new theories so that today—as in other scientific disciplines—there are theories which can be applied over a greater or lesser range.

Some theories contradict each other, presenting differing views of common concepts, and some concepts are very closely linked to only one theory. Wallerstein (1988), former president of the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA), with his compact depiction of the pluralism of theoretical perspectives and culturally moulded forms prevailing in psychoanalysis today, has helped to establish a general recognition of the view that present-day psychoanalysis is a discipline with many theories.

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