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Medium 9781855758773

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: Psychoanalytic operating principles: how they derive from understanding knowledge acquisition

Fred M. Levin Karnac Books ePub

Fred Levin


This chapter109 addresses knowledge acquisition in relationship to two closely connected topics: the workings of mind– brain, and the clinical situation of psychoanalysis. If we understand how knowledge is acquired I believe it is then possible to outline a series of operating principles which can effectively guide our analytic work.

Let us start with a discussion of the problems inherent in conceptualizing mind–brain theoretically in terms of so-called “internal representations”. In its place I propose what I consider the more useful perspective of “expert systems”. Human learning is the result of brain plasticity and depends upon neural systems that change in relation to experience and the build-up of expertise. Any psychoanalytic theory of learning or personality must be consonant with what is known about learning, memory, and knowledge formation from neuroscience (Cloninger, 1991; also see Chapter Four).

Of course, any comprehensive psychoanalytic theory of learning must also take into account what is known about the psychoanalytic transference (reviewed in Chapter Five). In what follows I therefore aim at further clarifying specific clinical recommendations that facilitate learning in general by both creating and exploiting learning readiness. The psychoanalyst reader will especially appreciate the attempt to connect specific clinical recommendations with the neurophysiological principles upon which they rest.

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Medium 9781449305635

Running a Group of Tasks Together

Vandad Nahavandipoor O'Reilly Media ePub

GCD lets us create groups, which allow you to place your tasks in one place, run all of them, and get a notification at the end from GCD. This has many valuable applications. For instance, suppose you have a UI-based app and want to reload the components on your UI. You have a table view, a scroll view, and an image view. You want to reload the contents of these components using these methods:

At the moment, these methods are empty, but later you can put the relevant UI code in them. Now we want to call these three methods, one after the other, and we want to know when GCD has finished calling these methods so that we can display a message to the user. For this, we should be using a group. You should know about four functions when working with groups in GCD:

Creates a group handle. Once you are done with this group handle, you should dispose of it using the dispatch_release function.

Submits a block of code for execution on a group. You must specify the dispatch queue on which the block of code has to be executed as well as the group to which this block of code belongs.

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Medium 9781781606926

L’élève de Benton

Donald Wigel Parkstone International ePub

Le pre de Pollock trouva un emploi Riverside en Californie. Cest pourquoi pendant lt 1927 et les trois annes suivantes, Jackson et son frre Sanford travaillrent avec leur pre, tudiant la topographie du Grand Canyon. Plus tard, il se rendit compte que les vastes paysages de lOuest avaient influenc sa vision artistique . Sa vision du all over tait en train dvoluer.

Pollock connut une priode relativement calme mais brve de sa vie au cours de sa seizime anne. Lartiste et professeur Fredrick John de St. Vrain Schwankovsky enseigna Pollock les bases de lart abstrait, en particulier dans le domaine de prdilection du jeune homme la sculpture. Schwankovsky fit aussi dcouvrir Pollock les fondements du Bouddhisme et un nouveau mouvement appel Thosophie, une approche occidentale du mysticisme, base sur la philosophie orientale. Par la suite, les uvres de lartiste allaient toujours tmoigner dune manire ou dune autre de ces influences spirituelles.

Ces principes pourraient avoir abouti au concept de Pollock et ses compositions all over , une vision ouverte et sans bornes de son uvre, plaant le moment et limage au-del des limites tri-dimensionnelles de la toile. En travaillant trs prs de la vaste surface et en ne prenant que rarement du recul pour ltudier de loin, il ne pouvait en effet voir son uvre autrement que sans dlimitations physiques. Les rythmes et les motifs qui en rsultent se prolongent dans lesprit au-del de la toile. En 1930, Pollock crivit son frre Charles, pour qui la jeunesse tait cette soi-disant priode heureuse de la vie dun individu , quil la considrait pour sa part comme un fichu enfer .

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Medium 9781617833908


Tieck, Sarah ABDO PDF
Medium 9781936765539

Two Comprehension

Patricia M. Cunningham Solution Tree Press ePub

Comprehension—thinking about and responding to what one is reading—is the prime reason for engaging in reading. The questions surrounding comprehension—what it is, how it occurs, and how it should be taught—have driven hundreds of research studies since the 1970s. Reading comprehension and how to teach it is probably the area of literacy about which we have the most knowledge and have achieved the most consensus. Unfortunately, it is an area that gets little attention in the classroom. If researchers and educators agree that comprehension is what reading is all about, then why isn’t it taught more often?

We believe there are three roadblocks that keep teachers from teaching comprehension, and that these roadblocks keep many students from becoming thoughtful, responsive readers. Some of the roadblocks reflect misconceptions or belief systems that lead to inadequate, ineffective, or inappropriate instruction.

In 1979, Dolores Durkin published a landmark study demonstrating that little, if any, reading comprehension instruction happens in most classrooms. What she observed instead was teachers assessing comprehension, primarily by asking individual students to answer oral or written comprehension questions. This finding has been replicated in other studies since then (Beck, McKeown, & Gromoll, 1989; Pressley & Wharton-McDonald, 1998), and no studies have refuted it. In our experience, having students answer comprehension questions orally or in writing remains the most common reading comprehension activity in classrooms.

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