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Medium 9781601322500

Towards Spectrum Resource Management in Cognitive Radio Networks via Intrusion Detection and Response Model

Hamid R. Arabnia, Victor A. Clincy, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, and Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF

14

Int'l Conf. Wireless Networks | ICWN'13 |

Towards Spectrum Resource Management in Cognitive Radio Networks via

Intrusion Detection and Response Model

Obeten O. Ekabua

Department of Computer Science

North-West University, Mafikeng Campus,

Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa

(obeten.ekabuao@nwu.ac.za)

Abstract: Cognitive Radio Network (CRNs) was innovated as a means to solve the problem of spectrum scarcity. CRNs are able to detect and utilize vacant spectrum by means of dynamic spectrum access (DSS) without interfering to the primary licensed users. This has led to the increase in vulnerabilities and threats to the

CRNs. The steady increase in attacks against cognitive radio network and its resources has caused a necessity to protect to these valuable assets. Among existing problems in CRNs resource management is the issues of security and privacy. CRNs are wireless in nature, they face all common security threats found in the traditional wireless networks and other new security threats and challenges that have arisen due to their unique cognitive (selfconfiguration, self-healing, self-optimization, and selfprotection) characteristics. Traditional security measures would be inadequate to combat these challenges. There is a need to advance and improve the security standard and level for cognitive radio networks. Therefore, this research paper proposes an intrusion detection and response model (IDRM) to enhance and advance security for spectrum resource management in cognitive radio networks. IDRM monitors all the activities in order to detect the intrusion. It searches for security violation incidents, recognizes unauthorized accesses, and identifies information leakages. Unfortunately, system administrators neither can keep up with the pace that an intrusion detection system is delivering responses or alerts, nor can they react within adequate time limits.

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Medium 9781855750869

34. The Dream of the Occlusive Pessary. [1915]

Sandor Ferenczi Karnac Books ePub

A PATIENT recounted the following dream: I stuff an occlusive pessary into my urethra. I am alarmed as I do so lest it might slip into the bladder from which it could only be removed by shedding blood. I try, therefore, to hold it steady in the perineal region from outside and to force it back or to press it outwards along the urethra… . Here it struck him that in a dream fragment preceding this dream the pessary was stuffed into his rectum. Supplement: in the dream I was aware that the elastic thing would spread itself [sic] in the bladder and then it would be impossible to get it out again.

To the patient who is otherwise quite a masculine person, this dream in which he—like a woman—takes precautionary measures against impregnation seemed quite nonsensical, and he also was curious to learn whether this painful dream was a wish-fulfilment.

Asked for the actual conditioning of the dream he at once related:’ I had an assignation yesterday. Naturally it was the female partner and not I who took precautionary measures; she does actually protect herself from consequences by means of an occlusive pessary.’

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Medium 9789380856025

Ch_4_F

Vasanthi Reena Williams Laxmi Publications PDF

The Indian Partnership Act, 1932

145

4

THE INDIAN PARTNERSHIP

ACT, 1932

4.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE INDIAN PARTNERSHIP ACT, 1932

(A) Scheme of the Act

Partnership is a form of business organization, where two or more people, having common interest, join together for jointly carrying on some business. The law relating to partnership in India is embodied in the Indian Partnership Act, 1932. Before this Act could come into force, the provisions of Sections 239 to 266 of the Indian Contract Act governed a partnership. This Act was given effect to from the 1st of October, 1932. However, Section 69, which deals with the effect of non-registration of firms, came into force from 1st October 1933. The Act extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu & Kashmir. According to Sec 3, since partnership comes into existence only by a contract between people who later become partners of the firm, the provisions of the Indian Contract Act, continue to apply to partnership firms.

(B) Definition

Section 4 of the Indian Partnership Act defines a partnership as �Partnership is the relation between persons who have agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all�. Partnership is therefore an association of two or more individuals who engage themselves in a commercial activity through joint efforts, labour, skill with the intention of dividing the profits and bearing the loss arising out of such association.

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Medium 9780870818004

4 THE PIKES PEAK GOLD RUSH

Stephen J. Leonard University Press of Colorado ePub

Here you are, gentlemen; this ace of hearts is the winning card.
Watch it closely. Follow it with your eye as I shuffle. Here it is, and
now here, now here and now [laying the three cards on the table
facedown]—where? If you point it out the first time, you win but if
you miss, you lose.1

—ALBERT RICHARDSON COMMENTING ON
DENVER’S EARLY GAMBLERS

Reports on Colorado in 1859 often mentioned the professional card shark. During the winter of 1858–1859 a thousand or so people who had wintered among the cottonwood groves along the South Platte River had been amply entertained by experts in monte and faro who came from Santa Fe, Salt Lake, and the western army posts to deal hands to new customers. When journalist Albert Richardson penned his description of three-card monte in June, gamblers in the canvas-roofed hotel known as the Denver House kept six tables busy day and night. The constant cries of “Who’ll go me twenty? The ace of hearts is the winning card!” kept Richardson’s associate, editor Horace Greeley, who had come out from New York to see the excitement, awake past midnight.2

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Medium 9789380298900

LXDOEC-14.pdf

Ramesh Bnagia Laxmi Publications PDF

388

Programming and Problem Solving Through ‘C’ Language

void main()

{ char name[]=”Prem Nath”; printf(“\n %s”, name); getch();

}

(a) Prem Nath

(b) Prem

(c) Nath

(d) Error

5. Suppose a C compiler reserves 16-bit for a char data type. What is the total number of characters that can be represented and stored by compiler?

(a) 127

(b) 128

(c) 256

(d) 255

6. A function is invoked with a call statement as in call ckeck (x);

(a) True

(b) False

7. Find error in the following code: int a, ptr; a = 11; ptr = &a;

(a) ptr = &a;

(b) a = 11;

(c) int a, ptr;

(d) none

8. Select the correct statement.

(a) Body of for loop executed at least once

(b) Body of while loop executed at least once

(c) Body of do-while loop executed at least once

(d) Body of none for, while, and do-while executed without condition

PART B

Answer all questions, each of them carries one mark

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

True False Questions

Comments are which you write in the program as some sort of instructions for the operator or user of the program.

The use of number 0, 1 and 2 and letter O, I and Z in a program should be kept to a maximum.

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