Scotland has produced a great number of famous scientists and inventors, including Alexander Graham Bell (Chapter 4), Lord Kelvin (Chapter 73), John Napier (Chapter 57), John Logie Baird (page 452), and James Watt (page 299). But in the world of mathematics and physics, one name stands above them all: James Clerk Maxwell.
Einstein described Maxwells contributions as the most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton because in 1864 Maxwell showed, in the paper
A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field
, that light is actually formed from electromagnetic waves. He also suggested that there might be other types of radiation obeying the same laws, and it wasnt long before other types of radiation were discovered: radio waves were found by Hertz in 1886, X-rays by Rntgen in 1895, and gamma rays by Villard in 1900.
And, above all, Maxwells important theoretical step underpins Einsteins 1905 work on relativity. But completely changing physics wasnt enough for Maxwells prodigious talenthe also made a major contribution to thermodynamics and the kinetic theory of gases.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS): This is the language ability required for social communication. It takes between one and three years to attain this basic level of oral proficiency. bilingual education: Students are allowed to develop language proficiency in two languages by receiving instruction in some combination of English and the student’s primary language. cognates: These are words in English closely related to the student’s primary language.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP): This refers to the mastery of academic language necessary for students to succeed in context-reduced and cognitively demanding content areas. It takes between five and ten years for a second-language student to perform at grade level without ELL support. comprehensible input: This is content in which the level of language difficulty has been adapted to the student’s proficiency level to enable him or her to understand.
English as a second language (ESL): This is an educational approach in which
One of the ways in which we try to deal with the sense of hopelessness is to understand more about what is happening. This chapter looks at some of the concepts that have been developed to increase our intellectual grasp of the underlying divisions and conflicts that all societies share.
Whenever the PD group is struggling with the powerful themes of conflict and division, the word “scapegoat” is likely to be heard above the rough seas. It is the one “group concept” that everyone has heard of, and maybe as a result, is frequently misapplied.
The original “scapegoat” of the Old Testament was sent into the wilderness, carrying the sins of the community. The goat took with it the bad parts of the group, leaving only the good in a rejuvenated, cleansed society. This worked well until just by virtue of living, things got messy again, and another goat was needed to get rid of the rubbish. There was also a good goat, whose fate was to be sacrificed to the Lord. The devil had one goat, God had the other, and in this way good and bad were split apart and dealt with. The polarisation of good and bad is a powerful and continuous dynamic in society, and thus also in the PD group.
The rule of no realm is mine, neither Gondor nor any other, great or small. But all worthy things that are in peril as the world now stands, those are my care. And for my part, I shall not wholly fail in my task, though Gondor should perish, if anything that passes through this night can still grow fairer or bear fruit and flower again in days to come. For I too am a steward. Did you not know?
Gandalf, in J. R. R. Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King
In the following pages, we will consider some of the specific ways in which suffering may be perpetuated at the individual, organizational, and societal levels. Reactions to the hardships of humans, animals, and our planet—that is, trauma exposure response—may manifest very differently at each of these three levels, but the risk of behaviors that inadvertently magnify the pain and suffering of direct trauma is always present. The more deeply we realize this, the more we understand the potential—and the necessity—for a trauma stewardship approach. I encourage you to keep all three levels in mind as you read this book. If we can transform ourselves, we have the potential to change the world.