Riffs for the caring girl who’s small and thin-limbed inside her whatever body unvarnished, freckled with old skin and dust so young, so young no matter what whose dreams are poor, whose weariness turns to daydreams when the sun shines, who feels exactly what each suffering person feels who knows what happiness would look like because she saw it dancing past one day who wants to be kind and every hour anger drowns her kindness in its brine who can’t help anyone to stay alive although she tries and tries who cries because she feels love when a dog nuzzles her – riffs for the caring girl who’s still at sixty holding up her raving daughter and consoling her mother for a life without radiance, who looks at magazine stories of happiness found at last by women so much younger than herself and wonders how it’s possible to have said yes to everything and still missed the door out of her body into the room where a man waits for her with his arms open, surely she tried to find him, surely she did?
BEGINNING (1) TO DEVELOPING (2) AND DEVELOPING (2) TO APPLYING (3)
As we saw in chapter 3, a teacher at the Beginning (1) level understands why a particular strategy is important and is actively trying the strategy out in his or her classroom. To move from the Beginning (1) level to the Developing (2) level, a teacher must execute all the steps of the strategy without errors or omissions. To move from the Developing (2) to the Applying (3) level for a strategy, a teacher must monitor students’ responses to the strategy by watching to see if the strategy is producing the desired effect on students.
As an example of these moves, consider the teacher from chapter 3 who selected element 9—chunking content into digestible bites—as a growth-goal area and who decided to start by using a specific strategy for chunk processing in his classroom. As described in chapter 3, that strategy involves four steps. The teacher:
• Groups students in threes and assigns a letter to each group member: A, B, and C
This paper, the last to be published by Martha Harris, takes a historical overview of certain key moments in the evolution of Kleinian thinking. These are: Klein’s extension of Freud’s “projection” into “projective identifcation” as a result of her observation of children’s phantasy worlds; work by her colleagues and students with psychotic adults and by Meltzer on sexual theory, enabling a clear diferentiation between narcissistic and object-related modes of mental operation in forming personality structure; Bion’s extension of “projective identifcation” and of Klein’s “epistemophilic instinct” in his theory of thinking; and Bick’s perception of skin functioning in infants which, together with her colleagues’ and students’ work on autism, enabled a diferentiation between two-and three-dimensional states of mind. These apparently diferent or diferently-derived theories integrate into a single model of personality growth. The examples that follow on however emphasize the fact that individuality is varied and surprising and does not necessarily conform to the expectations aroused by any existing model.
[Highly effective schools] succeed where other schools fail because they ruthlessly organize themselves around one thing: helping students learn a great deal. This seems too simple an explanation, really. But, by focusing on student learning and then creating structures that support learning, these schools have drastically departed from the traditional organizational patterns of American schools.
—KARIN CHENOWETH, 2009
Quality teaching requires strong professional learning communities. Collegial interchange, not isolation, must become the norm for teachers. Communities of learning can no longer be considered utopian; they must become the building blocks that establish a new foundation for America’s schools.
—NATIONAL COMMISSION ON TEACHING AND AMERICA’S FUTURE, 2003
We hope the remaining chapters of this book persuade educators to work collaboratively to meet the needs of students by establishing timely, directive, and systematic interventions and enrichment. It is imperative, however, that educators understand certain fundamental prerequisites must be in place if a system of interventions is to be effective in improving student learning. Those who approach the task as if it were simply a program to add to the existing practices of the school will miss a basic premise of this book. Addressing the question of how will we respond when students do not learn is not a program: it must be part of a broader process to transform the culture of a school.