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Medium 9781601322425

Advanced Symmetric Key Cryptosystem Using Bit and Byte Level Encryption Methods with Feedback

Hamid R. Arabnia, George A. Gravvanis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF

��.RONDWD, India


Abstract - In the present paper the authors have introduced a new symmetric key cryptographic method where the authors have applied bit level and byte level generalized modified vernam cipher method followed by bit-wise transposition method.

Nath et al already developed method which was a combination of generalized bit level and byte level encryption methods. In the present method the authors have added one more encryption method that is bitwise columnar transposition method. Nath et al also developed bit level encryption standard(BLES) Ver-I and

Ver-II where they have used extensive bit level permutation, bit exchange, bit xor and bit shift encryption method. In the present study the authors have used both bit level generalized vernam cipher method and after that byte level vernam cipher method using feedback and finally the output is passed through bit-wise columnar transposition method to make the whole system more secured. The introduction of feedback in both bit level as well as byte level vernam cipher method prevents from standard attacks such as differential attack or known plain text attack. In the present paper the authors have used random key generator to construct the keypad for vernam cipher method. The present method will be most effective for encrypting short message, password, any confidential key etc.

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Medium 9780749459352

32 Information and communication technology in the supply chain

Rushton, Alan Kogan Page ePub


Information and communication technology in the supply chain


There can be no doubt that the availability of cheap computing power has led to dramatic developments in the science of supply chain management. The ability to handle breathtaking amounts of data quickly and accurately has in the last 40 years literally transformed the way business is conducted. It has been described, with good cause, as the second Industrial Revolution. The ability to pass information between supply chain partners via mobile devices, satellite systems and electronic data interchange is being exploited by more and more companies daily. The advent of mass access to the internet has sparked off a boom in home and office-based shopping, to say nothing of the use of e-mail as a means of communicating with friends and business colleagues around the globe.

Information and communication systems along with the associated hardware used in supply chain management fulfil different roles. They may aid the decision-making process, help to monitor and control operations, create simulated systems, store and process data, and aid communication between individuals, companies and machines.

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Medium 9780931432781

Chapter 12: The Ways of Civilization

Kent Nerburn and Louise Mengelkoch New World Library ePub

“Civilization has been thrust upon me . . . and it has not added one whit to my love for truth, honesty, and generosity.…”

Chief Luther Standing Bear

Oglala Sioux

Much has been said of the want of what you term “civilization” among the Indians. Many proposals have been made to us to adopt your laws, your religion, your manners, and your customs. We do not see the propriety of such a reformation.

We should be better pleased if we could actually see the good effects of these doctrines in your own practices rather than hearing you talk about them, or reading your newspapers on such subjects.

You say, for example, “Why do not the Indians till the ground and live as we do?” May we not ask with equal propriety, “Why do not the white people hunt and live as we do?”

Old Tassel

The more I consider the condition of the white men, the more fixed becomes my opinion that, instead of gaining, they have lost much by subjecting themselves to what they call the laws and regulations of civilized societies.


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Medium 9781935249849

16 Changing the Culture of Schooling to Embrace Effort-Based Enrichment

Richard DuFour Solution Tree Press ePub

Give them the gift of the growth mindset. Create an environment that teaches the growth mindset to the adults and children in your life.


Probably the most important—and the most difficult—job of the school-based reformer is to change the prevailing culture of a school. . . . Ultimately, a school’s culture has far more influence on life and learning in the schoolhouse than the state department of education, the superintendent, the school board, or even the principal can ever have.


Great schools “row as one”; they are quite clearly in the same boat, pulling in the same direction in unison. The best schools we visited were tightly aligned communities marked by a palpable sense of common purpose and shared identity among staff—a clear sense of “we.”


Educators in search of the one new program that will transform their school may be tempted to view the development of systematic interventions and enrichment for students as the solution to their problems. Unfortunately, the effect of simply adding programs to traditional school practices is neither significant nor lasting. At the risk of redundancy, we repeat the message we have attempted to stress throughout this book: attention to interventions and enrichment should not be viewed as a program or add-on, but rather should be considered as part of the larger process of creating the culture of a professional learning community.

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Medium 9780596007652

2. A Brief History of Wayfinding

Peter Morville O'Reilly Media ePub

Not all those who wander are lost.

J.R.R. Tolkien

Labyrinths and mazes are two distinct creatures. In the modern world, we are most familiar with the maze, an intricate and often confusing network of interconnecting pathways or tunnels designed to challenge the skills of all who enter. Mazes are multicursal. They offer a choice of paths, along with a disorienting mix of twists, turns, blind alleys, and dead ends. In a maze, it's hard to find your way and easy to become lost.

In contrast, a true labyrinth is unicursal, like the one in Figure 2-1. There is one well-defined path that leads into the center and back out again. The labyrinth is an ancient symbol with a 3,500 year history in religion and mythology in such diverse places as Egypt, Peru, Arizona, Iceland, India, and Sumatra. It combines the imagery of circle and spiral into a meandering but purposeful path, a reassuring metaphor for our journey through life.

In practice, we use the terms interchangeably. Our most famous labyrinth was really a maze, designed by the skillful architect Daedalus to entomb the Minotaur and its victims. Only by relying on Ariadne's ball of thread was Theseus able to escape after slaying the beast at the center. Like today's mazes of hedge and corn and ink, the labyrinth of Crete was a puzzle, inviting competitors to test their skills.

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