The fear of affluenza, though never identified as such, has been part of the American tradition since colonists arrived here from Europe. It was a mixed bunch that risked life and livelihood to cross the Atlantic on small wooden ships. The first came seeking riches. The Spanish wanted gold; the French, furs. The Dutch sought new trade routes to the fabled Indies.
But among the early arrivals from England were refugees seeking to escape what they had come to view as a godless materialism rapidly taking root in Europe. “When the Puritans arrived in the New World, one of their major premises was their desire to try to create a Christian commonwealth that practiced simple living,” explains the historian David Shi.
In the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Puritans adopted what were known as sumptuary laws, forbidding conspicuous displays of wealth. They required colonists to wear simple clothing, for example. But because they were never applied fairly, the laws failed to stem a growing trade in luxury goods arriving in the New World from Europe. Wealthier, politically powerful Puritans could effectively ignore the laws and wear whatever they chose, while their poorer brethren were punished for transgressions of the dress code. In effect, the sumptuary laws exacerbated visible class differences.
The more successful the memory is in its accumulations the more nearly it approximates to resembling a saturated element saturated with saturated elements. An analyst with such a mind is one who is incapable of learning because he is satisfied. (Bion, 1967, p. 29)
I wish to reserve the term “memory” for experience related to conscious attempts at recall. These are expressions of a fear that some element, “uncertainties, mysteries, doubts” will obtrude. Dreamlike memory is the memory of psychic reality and is the stuff of psychoanalysis. (Bion, 1967, p. 70)
The reason why I quote these passages is because they highlight the line I will be taking in trying to explore the issue of trauma in adolescence. Whilst the memories of traumatic events impose themselves as a reminder of an overwhelming experience that threatened ego integrity by exposing it to an abrupt sense of helplessness, at the same time, as already stressed by Glover, memories of traumatic events can also hold a defensive function as they can be used by the subject to singularly explain a wide range of conflicts and emotional difficulties (Glover, 1929). The danger of an analysis that aims at reconstructing and elucidating trauma is that the analysis can become saturated with meaning, thus preventing the emergence of anything new and unimagined. The effect of traumatic events cannot be considered as if they were isolated psychic phenomena that need to be addressed in a special way. They should be considered alongside all other manifestations of the patient's psychic life. And this is of particular relevance when we think of adolescence, a time when the individual is under the influence of great physical and psychological changes.
A New Multi-phase Soft Segmentation with Adaptive Variants
Hongyuan Wang1 , Fuhua Chen2 of Information Science & Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, China
2 Dept. of Natural Science & Mathematics, West Liberty University, West Liberty, WV, USA
Abstract— In this paper, we proposed a multiphase soft segmentation model for nearly piecewise constant images based on stochastic principle, where pixel intensities are modeled as random variables with mixed Gaussian distribution. The novelty of this paper mainly lies in using adaptive variants.
Unlike some existing models where the mean of each phase is modeled as a constant and the variances for different phases are assumed to be the same, the mean for each phase in the Gaussian distribution in this paper is modeled as a product of a constant and a bias ﬁeld, and different phases are assumed to have different variances, which makes the model more ﬂexible. In addition, we developed a bi-direction projected primal dual hybrid gradient (PDHG) algorithm for iterations of membership functions.