The Document object has a property named cookie that was not discussed in Chapter15. On the surface, this property appears to
be a simple string value; however, the cookie property is much more than this: it
disk and to retrieve data that was previously stored in this way.
Client-side persistence is an easy way to give web applications a
memory: a web site can store user preferences so that they can be used
again when the user revisits the page, for example.
Cookies are also used for server-side scripting and are a standard
extension to the HTTP protocol. All modern web browsers support them and
allow them to be scripted with the Document.cookie property. There are other
client-side persistence mechanisms that are more powerful but less
standard than cookies, and I discuss them briefly at the end of this
A cookie is a small amount of named
data stored by the web browser and associated with a particular web
page or web site.[*] Cookies serve to give the web browser a memory so that
scripts and server-side programs can use data that was input on one
page on another page, or so the browser can recall user preferences or
other state variables when the user leaves a page and then returns.
Cookies were originally designed for server-side programming, and at
the lowest level, they are implemented as an extension to the HTTP
protocol. Cookie data is automatically transmitted between the web
browser and web server, so server-side scripts can read and write
can also manipulate cookies using the cookie
property of the Document object.
In eight days, newly-installed President Gerald R.
Ford would say, “The long nightmare is over.” That may have been true for many of the people of the
United States of America following the resignation of
President Richard M. Nixon. But for the ten civilian hostages in the library at the Walls Unit of the State
Prison at Huntsville, Texas, their long nightmare was far from over.
Construction of the rickety shield—that would supposedly protect them on their way out of the library, down the winding ramp, and to the armored truck that would transport them and their three captors to a destination that could only be guessed at—proceeded unabated. The rhythm grew even more frenetic as the participants, numbed by a lack of sleep from their all-night endeavors and goaded by their self-imposed prospects of freedom, abandoned their fears and hammered away at the Trojan Taco.
Carrasco, obviously pleased with the results of the previous day’s negotiation methodology, tried the ploy once more. He directed Novella Pollard to have
Complete coverage of how to convert a
CGI application (standard or WinCGI) would require an entire book to
itself. However, this appendix should provide a starting point for
In this example, I will
convert a simple CGI application to an ASP. I have written this
application in two forms: one version in Perl and one in Visual
Basic. Each version provides exactly the same functionality. It
retrieves the user's name and programming language preference
from a posted HTML form, then saves this information into a Microsoft
Access database using ActiveX Data Objects. Figure 2.1 shows the CGI application in a browser window.
FigureB.1.The HTML interface for our CGI application
The HTML code for the form in Figure 2.1 is
straightforward and is shown in Example 2.1.
ExampleB.1.HTML Source for the Sample CGI Application
I will use the same form with three separate values for the
<FORM> tag's ACTION
attribute, as shown in Table 2.1.
“… all of life comes to us in narrative form; it’s a story we tell”
(Zander & Zander, 2000, p. 9)
“The one who tells the stories rules the world”
(Native American Proverb, cited in Zona, 1994, p. 90)
Once the purpose of the work has been established, and the perspective that underpins it is clear, then it is possible to structure a process for the work that is to take place (Figure 5). Without the purpose and perspective being clearly defined, the process runs the risk of becoming a technical application uninformed by a sophisticated understanding of psychological principles, theory and research.
Figure 5. The purpose, perspective, and process model.
Devising a process that is fit for purpose presents a confection of choices. Decisions must be made about the type of information needed and where to “pitch” data-gathering efforts. For example, should the practitioner prioritize an understanding of the client’s subjective experience, or aim to develop a symptom profile? What weight should be given to predispositional as opposed to maintaining factors? Is it preferable to focus on understanding the influence of constitutional (personality or traits) or variable (state) factors? Should the focus be on the personal, interpersonal, or systemic? In light of these factors, decisions must also be made about the most appropriate procedures and methods to use (e.g., should self-report data be the primary source of information, or are observational methods to be preferred? Are interview procedures sufficient, or is psychometric testing required?). Finally, choices must be made concerning how the information obtained will be synthesized into a meaningful explanatory account that has implications for the client’s future. In this context, critical questions (which we suggest might be usefully considered as preparation for this chapter) include the following.