“I consider splitting a fundamental psychic activity because it is precisely that which gives rise to differentiation.”
André Green, 1998
1 Freudian logic: from the pathologic to universals
Roussillon (2007) says, “it has to be possible to remove the concept of the splitting of the ego from the simple clinical concept of the fetish, it will thus be given a higher theoretical status”. This statement is based on psychoanalytic research into borderline states, which was also intensely carried out by Green (1975), who lays emphasis on the structural value of the psychic operation known as “splitting” or “cleavage”. He points out that “in repression, the relation between the ego, as representative of reality, and drive demands, as representatives of pleasure, is vertical . . ., in splitting this relation is horizontal. The reason for the ego and the reason for drive demands coexist within the same psychic space” (emphasis added). These statements show that there exists a tendency to construct a global conception of psychic functioning starting from borderline pathology.
The word “person” in its first meaning is a mask. It is rather a recognition of the fact that everyone is always and everywhere, more or less consciously, playing a role … . It is in these roles that we know each other and it is in these roles that we know ourselves. [Robert Ezra Park, quoted in Goffman, 1971, p. 30]
We should be careful here not to dismiss the idea of “performance” as something false or distancing in authenticity. Rather, it is a recognition that in our many activities as therapists we will find ourselves emphasizing aspects of our behaviour, thinking, and feeling in relation to the other in order to create a sufficient and useful “fit” with the client's experience. Empathy, described by Koestler (1964), “is a nicely sober non-committal term for designating the rather mysterious processes which enable one to transcend his boundaries to step out of his skin as it were and put himself in the place of the other” (p. 188). This is a form of drawing, from the other, inferences and feelings that we can then utilize in the performance of our role. These have been illustrated in the foregoing practise examples. To pay attention to the scripting of the performance, “one reads the mood of the other for such scant and crude pointers as lifting or lowering of the corners of the lips or almost imperceptible changes in the muscles which control the eyes” (p. 188)
Abraham, Karl (1925). The influence of oral erotism on character-formation. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 6: 247-258.
Abraham, Karl (1926). Character-formation on the genital level of libido-development. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 7: 214-222.
In his paper on the anal character, Freud (1908b) moved on from interpreting symptoms to make a determined attempt to understand character and its development. Typically, he took his well-tried model: a character trait like a dream symbol or a symptom has a hidden, unconscious meaning which can be discovered by the psychoanalytic method, and is to be understood in terms of libidi-nal restriction. His bright idea, aroused probably by the Ratman case (according to Strachey’s introduction to the paper in the Standard Edition), was that certain character traits had a special relation to anal impulses—in particular, orderliness, parsimony, and obstinacy. Freud was claiming that character traits could be laid down by fixation points, just like neurotic symptoms. Character traits resulted from the libido hanging on to a particular level of development, as opposed to a regression to the fixation point under stress, which is more typical of neurotic symptoms. At this pre-genital level, certain impulses, anal ones, become settled in the personality, and typically what the personality expresses is traits opposed to the impulses, that is, institutionalized reaction formations.
All goal reports show multiple charts, one for each goal you’ve defined.
Figure 10-19 shows one of the charts from a sample Goal Conversion report.
This chart tracks the percentage of visitors that met a goal
(reading the about page) over a period of one week. The goal rate starts off at 67 percent
(meaning most visitors completed the goal), declines rapidly, and then climbs up modestly.
Understanding Your Visitors
A large part of success in any Web site is getting inside the minds of your visitors.
Why did they come? Why did they leave? What were they thinking when they spent 48 minutes reading your Hawaiian T-Shirt picture page?
In this section, you’ll learn about the reports that help you ferret out important details about your visitors.
Where They Live and Who They Are
In the Marketing Optimization section of the menu, there are two subgroups that are useful for tracking visitors: Visitor Segment Performance and Unique Visitor
Visitor Segment Performance provides a wealth of information about what Web site visitors are coming from, where they live, and what service provider they’re using. All of these reports include the same information: the number of visits, the pages per visit, and the conversion rate for your goals. The reports include: