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|W. Gordon Lawrence||Karnac Books||ePub|
Acknowledging the past and the future
I am to assume the worst of scenarios in order to find resources for building some realizable hope for the future. That there is an urgent need for thinking of the future is evident if only because the techno-scientific processes that fuel the world economy are exploiting the environment to such an extent that the material foundation for human life may be destroyed (Hobsbawm, 1994, p. 584). The future is certainly fragile. The ability to breathe life into the future, or to render it dead, rests with human beings, possessed of minds and the ability to think. And the price of any failure to think will be darkness—the tragic end of humanity. That is the long, profound shadow that the future casts before, to echo Bion.
I am bleak because I recall that in the first 72 years of the twentieth century 120 million man-made deaths had been perpetrated. Pogroms, massacres, extermination camps, and wars brought about these deaths. The victims did not have any choice. They were herded to their deaths by the functionaries of extermination—employees, for the most part, of totalitarian regimes. The extermination was completed with logistical and technological sophistication. (I take these figures from Gil Elliot’s 1972 book, Twentieth Century Book of the Dead.) What this conservatively estimated figure will rise to by the end of this century barely bears thinking about. We have to take account of the figures of the murdered from Africa, from Algeria, and now from Kosovo, from Chechnya, and so on.See more
|Chris Wallace-Crabbe||Carcanet Press Ltd.|
|Ace Academics||Ace Academics||ePub|
|Matthew MacDonald||O'Reilly Media|
Figure 1-19. You can save or open an AutoRecover backup just as you would an ordinary Excel file; simply click the item in the list. Once you’ve dealt with all the backup files, close the Document
Recovery window by clicking the Close button. If you haven’t saved your backup, Excel asks you at this point whether you want to save it permanently or delete the backup.
To open a file that’s in the Document Recovery window, just click it. You can also use a drop-down menu with additional options (Figure 1-19). Make sure you save the file before you leave Excel. After all, it’s just a temporary backup.
If you attempt to open a backup file that’s somehow been scrambled (technically known as corrupted), Excel automatically attempts to repair it. You can choose Show
Repairs to display a list of any changes Excel had to make to recover the file.
Opening existing files in Excel works much the same as it does in any Windows program. To get to the standard Open dialog box, choose Office button ➝ Open. Using the Open dialog box, you can browse to find the spreadsheet file you want, and then click Open to load it into Excel.See more
|Leonard Richardson||O'Reilly Media||ePub|
Think of the World Wide Web (and of any other RESTful API) as a technology stack. URLs are on the bottom; they identify resources. The HTTP protocol sits on top of those resources, providing read access to their representations and write access to the underlying resource state. Hypermedia sits on top of HTTP, describing the protocol semantics of one particular website or API.
The bottom layer answers the question “Where is the resource?” The middle layer answers the question “How do I communicate with the resource?” The top layer answers the question “What next?”
So far, this book has focused on the top layer of the stack—“What next?” That’s because the top layer is the tricky one. Most of today’s APIs use URLs and HTTP correctly, but don’t even bother with hypermedia.
In this chapter, I take a break from hypermedia, and go down a level to explain the advanced protocol semantics of HTTP. I don’t want to explain the HTTP protocol in detail; for that, I recommend HTTP: The Definitive Guide, by David Gourley and Brian Totty (O’Reilly). I’ll focus on features of HTTP that are especially useful in APIs, and features that new API developers may not be aware of.See more
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