Int'l Conf. Bioinformatics and Computational Biology | BIOCOMP'13 |
Customized Biomedical Informatics
Abhishek Narain Singh
Abstract. Structural variations, SVs, with size 1 base-pair to several 1000s of base-pairs with their precise breakpoints and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs, were determined for members of a family of four. It is also discovered that the mitochondrial DNA is less prone to SVs re-arrangements than SNPs and can have paternal leakage of inheritance which proposes better standards for determining ancestry and divergence between races and species. Sex determination of an individual is found to be strongly confirmed by means of calls of nucleotide bases of SVs to the Y chromosome. SVs would serve as fingerprint of an individual contributing to his traits and drug responses. These in silico techniques for analysis would become such a widespread application that a total transformation of the bio and medical industry would go through.
Freud was the first to distinguish a psychodynamic developmental period in the childs life, between the ages of 7 and 10, naming it latency. His original definition was:
[T]he latency period is characterised by the dissolution of the Oedipus Complex, the creation and consolidation of the superego and the erection of ethical and aesthetic barriers in the ego.
(Freud, 1926b: 114)
The latency period starts with the decline of the Oedipus complex. The consolidation of superego and the development of some defence mechanisms (negation, repression, and sublimation) are the most significant features of this period. Consequently, the alliance between superego and defence mechanisms provides the basis for further developmental tasks, such as character formation, social integration, and learning abilities. Thus the re-organization of the defences
is responsible for giving some degree of stability to latency. Through them the reactive formation of morality, shame, and revulsion are structured. In this case, the repression of the sexual libidounder the domain of the superegowill provide the child with the means to develop his or her conscious and pre-conscious abilities to deal with the external world. Sublimation will be the basis of the socialization process, since the sexual instincts are drawn from the sexual target and projected towards social objects, which, in turn, increase in their social value. It is not by chance that children usually begin to be literate around the age of six years. The latency period has a correspondence with the concrete operationsa crucial stage in Piagetian theory of cognitive development (Piaget, 1947, 1954, 2008), in which there is a huge development in cognitive abilities. According to Piaget (1947, 1954, 2008), at early latency the child begins with a progressive decentralization: the reasoning changes from the specific (in psychoanalytic terminologywith a certain experience of the narcissistic type of object choicedyadic narcissist relationship) to the broad (in psychoanalytic terminologyrole of triangulation).
The purpose of this book has been to show that Freud’s introduction of the theory of the death instinct and the “structural” formulations laid the foundation for the theories of contemporary psychoanalysis. The concept of the death instinct marked a change in Freud’s thinking. He no longer found it necessary to anchor this concept in clinical observations, as had been his practice in the past. He used the new concept to reinterpret clinical facts. He was untroubled by his realization that the “structural” theory was a reformulation of what had already been observed. Freud (1920g, 1940a) reconciled his new ideas with his earlier metapsychology. Nevertheless, the effect was to cause the original ideas to slip into the background (Yorke, 1993,1995,1996). Today psychoanalytic theories and techniques of treatment are challenged. Basic descriptive and explanatory concepts (e.g. resistance and repression) are subject to criticism. Even the method of free association has come under attack (Grunbaum, 1984). This makes it essential for psychoanalysts to acknowledge the provisional nature of their theories. Explanatory concepts must be subject to scrutiny in order to confirm or deny their validity. This may be unimportant to some analysts and to the hermeneutists, but, as Steiner (1995) warns, the too-free interpretation of the narrative constructed by patient and analyst may lead to the risk of a “… sort of psychoanalysis a la carte, where anything goes” (Steiner, 1995). As Roiphe (1995) declares, verification is a necessary step if psychoanalysis is to achieve the status of a scientific discipline. An objective approach is taken seriously by many psychoanalysts. This as is attested by the collection of papers published by The Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association (1995) under the heading of “Psychoanalysis as Science”.