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|Vladimir Kushnir||O'Reilly Media||ePub|
|Mark Gurry||O'Reilly Media||ePub|
This section lists problems that are common to both the rule-based and cost-based optimizers. It is important that you are aware of these problems and avoid them wherever possible. Table 1-4 lists the problems and their occurrence rates.
Table1-4.Common problems with both optimizers
Problems for both Rule and Cost
1. Statement not written for indexes
2. Indexes are missing or inappropriate
3. Use of single-column index merge
4. Misuse of nested loop, sort merge, or hash join
5. Misuse of IN, EXISTS, NOT IN, NOT EXISTS, or table joins
6. Unnecessary Sorts
7. Too many indexes on a table
8. Use of OR instead of UNION
9. Tables and indexes with many deletes
Some SELECT statement WHERE clauses do not use indexes at all. Most such problems are caused by having a function on an indexed column. Oracle8i and later allow function-based indexes, which may provide an alternative method of using an effective index.
In the examples in this section, for each clause that cannot use an index, I have suggested an alternative approach that will allow you to get better performance out of your SQL statements.See All Chapters
|John Rickman||Karnac Books||ePub|
THE half-century which this series of essays is designed to cover also spans the history of modern psychological medicine, which is also the history of a new skill. Every advance in medical science can be related to the development of skills—in clinical observation, in the design and use of apparatus of research, in the interpretation of data obtained by the use of the apparatus, and above all in conceptualizing the problem that is being faced. To this general rule the development of psychological medicine is no exception; but since the data differ so greatly from those of the physiologist and pathologist the means by which the facts are collected also are different. Both kinds of research are concerned with answers to the fundamental question, ’What goes with what?’ If the data of the pathologist cannot be immediately linked with the data of the psycho-pathologist and psychiatrist, and vice versa, it simply means that ’total medicine’ has not yet found a theory which combines the two.See All Chapters
|Karl Abraham||Karnac Books||ePub|
The Subject-Matter and Theory of Freudian Psycho-analysis
THE theories associated with the name of Sigmund Freud relate to several spheres of psychic life which, at first sight, seem to have little connection with one another. In his Studies on Hysteria published in 1895 in collaboration with Joseph Breuer, Freud used pathological psychic manifestations as his starting-point. The progressive development of the psycho-analytical method necessitated the intensive study of dreams.1 It then became clear that in order to understand these phenomena fully, it was also necessary to make a comparative study of certain other phenomena. Freud was consequently impelled to incorporate an increasing range of psychological phenomena, both normal and abnormal, into the scope of his investigations. In this way, in the ‘Sammlung Kleiner Schriften zur Neurosen-lehre’, he came to collect papers on hysteria, obsessional ideas and other psychic disorders, the monograph on wit which was published in 1905, the Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex,2 and later the psychological analysis of a work of fiction,3 which together form the first volume of this series. It was Freud’s achievement to discern in these apparently unrelated products of the human mind the attributes they share in common. These are their relationship to the unconscious, to the psychic life of infancy and to sexuality. They also share in common the tendency to represent man’s wishes as fulfilled and the means used to represent such fulfilment.See All Chapters
|Marlene Caroselli||HRD Press, Inc.|
21. Ethical Salesmanship
A Stick in Time Saves Nine
Approximately 20 minutes (more or less, depending on size of class)
Using any one of nine common phrases about sticks, participants will select one and relate it to the ethical position taken by their corporate leaders.
To develop insight concerning the ethical climate by regarding it from a fresh perspective.
Any size group.
If possible, table groups for four participants.
Transparency 21.1, “Nine ‘Stick’ Phrases”
1. Introduce this activity with the proviso that what is said in the room remains in the room. Advise the group that you’d like them to protect the innocent—and perhaps the guilty—by working on an exercise that asks them to project the ethical positions of organizational leaders. However, you’d like them not to identify any one person by name.
Explain that one of the best ways to garner original insights is to juxtapose two unrelated things. To that end, you’d like them to think in terms of “sticks” and to relate a “stick” phrase to the company’s sales philosophy, predicated on the declaration of its leaders.See All Chapters
Business & Economics