There has been considerable confusion among many clinicians about the significance of ideals. This is not surprising considering the confusions within the concept. For example: the terms self ideal and ego ideal stem from different theoretical approaches; some authors refer to the ideal as a goal (or to sub-goals on the way to it), while others refer to the ideal as the means or manner by which a goal is attained. The confusion is compounded by the use of the verb to idealise and the noun idealisation. Most clinicians refer to illusory defensive idealisations, but others write of parents idealising their children when admiring and affirming their achievements. It also seems that the assumptions on which theories of self/ego ideal have been explored are understandably weighted towards defensive and pathological idealisations rather than the development of maturative ideals.
Our impression is that to be useful to clinicians, the concept of self or ego ideals requires an empirically grounded taxonomy. In this chapter we continue a presentation of a preliminary attempt to do so. The foundations for it were presented in the unpublished paper given at a meeting celebrating Bowlby’s eightieth birthday, an outline of which was given at a meeting of the Royal College of Psychiatrists (Lake 1989).
For most users, the default sendmail that is
produced by running Build will be perfectly
suitable. For others, however, support for certain desirable features
will have to be added, such as hesiod,
ldap, or nis as a means to
validate users and route mail. The open source distribution of
sendmail has many such features that you can
choose to include or to exclude from your compiled binary.
All the features described in this chapter are implemented as
compile-time #define macros that are passed to the
compiler with appropriate -D switches. Your
m4 file is the proper place to put in such
definitions. For example, to remove support for wildcard matches in
the password(5) file from
sendmail, you should:
A new line is added to your Buildm4 file that adds the complier flag
-DMATCHGECOS=0, which turns off support for
All the latest available -D compile-time macro
values will be listed in the sendmail/README
file. Those that we cover are listed in this book in Table 3-2.
Before you begin the process of building
sendmail you should consider obtaining and
installing several important support packages. These packages are not
needed to install sendmail, but they will make
your system more convenient and safer. Typically, each takes 20
minutes to an hour to install, so you really are not facing a serious
Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that!
—LEWIS CARROLL, FROM THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS
SOLAR IS DEAD—AT LEAST THAT’S WHAT ITS DETRACTORS want you to believe. Dead in the water, they say, dead as disco and dinosaurs, a hippie-dippy pipe dream gone up in smoke. But these solar-energy opponents, many of whom hail from the coal, oil, nuke, and gas lobbies (ol’ King CONG), have recently been pointing to just one example in their efforts to prove their point: Solyndra, the erstwhile solar-industry poster child, which, in 2011, made headlines and drew nationwide derision when it went bankrupt after receiving a $500 million loan from the US government.
But here’s the truth King CONG doesn’t want you to know: The downfall of Solyndra actually proved that solar power is fast becoming the most cost-effective and efficient form of electricity on Earth. The company’s failure was largely due to competition in a market that’s been growing at an amazing rate, and Solyndra’s idea for a lower-cost solar module (which had a daft cylindrical design that was too fragile and too expensive to make) simply couldn’t compete with less-expensive, mass-produced silicon-based solar panels, the cheapest of which largely come from China—not an uncommon practice as new products become more common and affordable.
We are now ready to return more particularly to the questions raised at the outset regarding the search for a psychoanalytic theory of learning, and also a theory of transference. We could start with the second of the two theories (relating to transference) but cannot fail to rapidly advance to the first theory relating to learning, since transference is at least partially reducible to the mind–brain’s system for acquiring refined, affectively meaningful information about the self and object world (i.e., expanding episodic memory). In what follows I will attempt to settle some issues that help us proceed with the deeper investigation of transference and learning of Chapters Four and Five.
Transference from its inception has been a complex idea. Freud’s major depiction of transference rests on an image of the mind as a form of map, with known territory (the conscious and precon-scious) and terra incognita (the unconscious). This powerful topographic metaphor of knowledge distribution within an imaginary space illustrates Freud’s capacity to excite our imagination while simultaneously arousing our scientific curiosity. Most critical, however, is Freud’s conveyed sense that the fabric of mental life is deeply conflicted as a universal condition, and that only when the mental “pieces” are properly recombined (through analysis) does the entire “puzzle” become intelligible (the so-called dynamic point of view).
wo years after the disappointing tour through Western Europe, which earned him a scholarship at the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg through his highly lauded final project, Repin turned towards motives and subjects of Russian life.
In the Russian Orthodox Church it was customary for women to cover their heads. The justification for this rule was derived from the first letter of Apostle Paul to the Corinthians which mentions that “[…] every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head — it is the same as having her head shaved. […]” and “A man ought not to cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God; but woman is the glory of man.”
This makes the identification of the woman in the painting not an easy task. She could be a nun just as well a regular church-going woman on her way to mass. With this portrait, Repin created a dark painting depicting a woman fully covered in a black cloak and a black head cloth with only her strict face left uncovered. Her silhouette is barely distinguishable against the background which is broken only in one place by a lighter shade of colour. The woman is looking at the viewer from the corners of her eyes – waiting, insecure, and cautious.