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Medium 9789383828432


P.S.Sona Laxmi Publications PDF

Determination of Coefficient of Discharge by Venturi Meter 45






To demonstrate the use of venturi meter.

To determine the coefficient of discharge during fluid flow.

To study the effect of flow rate on Reynold�s number of liquid.


Venturi meter Assemble


Stop clock


Water supply



To control the industrial process, it is essential to know the material entering and leaving the process. If materials are transported in the form of fluids, the determination of flow rate is so important. Venturi meter is one of the flow meters commonly used in the industry for the determination of flow rate of fluids.

A venturi meter consist of a short conical inlet section which leads to throat section then to a long discharge cone. Manometer connections are done at the start of the inlet section and at the throat of the venturi meter. When the fluid is entering to the constricted portion (throat of venturi) there will be an increase in the velocity, and hence increase in the kinetic energy. So according to the Bernoulli�s theorem there should be a reduction in pressure energy. This pressure drop in the cone is used to determine the flow rate. It is also desirable to know the density of the fluid flowing, diameter ratio, and venturi coefficient of discharge. The coefficient of discharge is determined experimentally. For a well designed venturi meter this will be about 0.98 for pipe diameter of 2-8 inches and 0.99 for large sizes.

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Medium 9781855755475

CHAPTER TEN: Bearing unbearable affect

David Garfield Karnac Books ePub

The sand was unbearably hot, yet Tony refused to get up. His mind said “get up” but his body could not do it. He figured it wouldn't be more than a first-degree sunburn and, in some ways, the relief he felt at having the heat of the sun infuse his exhausted body more than made up for the discomfort of the sand.

Nancy had not been wild about taking vacation in the Caribbean and lying on a beach, yet Tony knew that if he didn't take care of himself and replenish his internal stores, he wouldn't stand a chance upon his return to Boston. The work would eat him up. Was he depressed? No. Was he neurovegetative? Yes. The difference, he concluded was in the will. His will, at this time, was on the side of his psyche. An old saying played over again in his mind: “If you don't bend, you break.” As the developmental psychologists noted, one wanted to be stable and flexible rather than rigid and inflexible. Tony had learned that those clinicians who feel that psychotic patients are fragile should be ever aware of how psychosis can be incredibly inflexible. Then again, getting people to change is never an easy proposition. His thoughts were interrupted by a fly that insisted onbiting his nose. Now stirred up, Tony figured a walk along the beach was probably a good idea.

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Medium 9781780490878

Part I: Therapy and Theory

Karnac Books ePub


Keeping cool in thinking and psychotherapy

Stephen Frosh

It is a great honour and pleasure to contribute to this volume for David Campbell, whom I knew for thirty years and who was one of the most significant influences on my thinking and therapeutic practice, supporting and supervising me in the limited clinical skills I have, and, latterly, helping me survive the exigencies of academic management through his careful and astute consultation. David's unflappable interest, his personal courtesy and wisdom, and his capacity to think both individually and systemically—to stay neutral and curious, as systemic therapists say—penetrated to the core of what it means to be a colleague, a teacher, and a friend. In a Festschrift book such as this, with contributions from, and also an original audience of, colleagues and students of David, both being categories into which I fall, David's capacity to generate relational warmth was obvious; so, too, is his immense intellectual contribution to the development of psychotherapy and systemic thinking.

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Medium 9780819874955

Chapter 5: Materialism

Diana R. Jenkins Pauline Books and Media ePub

Today’s teens spend billions of dollars a year on clothing, video games, accessories, and other objects they want. While there’s nothing wrong with owning and enjoying things, many young people (and adults, too) overvalue possessions. Studies show that teens often define success and self-esteem in terms of what they have. When surveyed, over two-thirds of teens claim they would be happier if they could spend more money on themselves, and many say they would rather spend their time buying things than doing any other activity. Unfortunately, research consistently shows that materialistic people are less happy than others and not as satisfied with their lives.

And he said to them, “Take care! Be on your guard against all kinds of greed; for one’s life does not consist in the abundance of possessions.”

Luke 12:15

“Do not store up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust consume and where thieves break in and steal; but store up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust consumes and where thieves do not break in and steal. For where your treasure is, there your heart will be also.”

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Medium 9780946439560

16. A Soviet view of group therapy: discussion of a paper by N. V. Ivanov (1966)

S.H. Foulkes Karnac Books ePub

Ivanov was then Chief in the Department of Psychiatry at the S. M. Kirov Institute of Medicine at Gorky. His article focused on the orientation of group therapy in the Soviet Union, and its differences from the West. Some extracts from his paper are reprinted:

Under the socialist system the most important aspects of the social development of the personality are provided for by the government, and the clinician has no reason to substitute general social problems for clinical ones. The principal objectives of group psychotherapy abroad—the establishment of more harmonious relationships among human beings—are achieved in our country by our society’s organizations, and the fact that a man participates in a collective during all periods of his life.… The methods of Soviet psychotherapy have been developed in the direction of adding depth to the directly, clinical objectives of alleviating or completely eliminating morbid phenomena, of returning the patient as rapidly as possible to his primary activity in society as a member of a production team.

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