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Medium 9781449324452

18. Packages

Steven Feuerstein O'Reilly Media ePub

A package is a grouping or packaging together of elements of PL/SQL code into a named scope. Packages provide a structure (both logically and physically) in which you can organize your programs and other PL/SQL elements such as cursors, TYPEs, and variables. They also offer significant, unique functionality, including the ability to hide logic and data from view and to define and manipulate “global” or session-persistent data.

The package is a powerful and important element of the PL/SQL language. It should be the cornerstone of any application development project. What makes packages so powerful and important? Consider their advantages. With packages, you can:

As more and more of the production PL/SQL code base moves into maintenance mode, the quality of PL/SQL applications will be measured as much by the ease of maintenance as by overall performance. Packages can make a substantial difference in this regard. From data encapsulation (hiding all calls to SQL statements behind a procedural interface to avoid repetition), to enumerating constants for literal or “magic” values, to grouping together logically related functionality, package-driven design and implementation lead to reduced points of failure in an application.

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Medium 9781449372637

Chapter 1. Introduction

Lea Verou O'Reilly Media ePub

Contrary to popular belief, the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) does not “make” standards. Instead, it acts as a forum for interested parties to get together and do so, in its W3C Working Groups. Of course, the W3C is not a mere observer: it sets the ground rules and it oversees the process. But it’s not (primarily) W3C staff that actually write the specifications.

FIGURE 1.1 “Standards are like sausages: it’s better not to see them being made”
—Anonymous W3C WG member

CSS specifications, in particular, are written by the members of the CSS Working Group, often abbreviated as CSS WG. At the time of writing, the CSS WG includes 98 members, and its composition is as follows:

86 members from W3C member companies (88%)

7 Invited Experts, including yours truly (7%)

5 W3C staff members (5%)

As you might notice, the vast majority of WG members (88%) come from W3C member companies. These are companies—such as browser vendors, popular websites, research institutes, general technology companies, etc.—that have a vested interest in seeing web standards flourish. Their yearly membership dues represent the majority of the W3C’s funding, enabling the Consortium to distribute its specifications freely and openly, unlike other standards bodies that have to charge for them.

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Medium 9780253014689

1. “I See . . . a Great Future” (1891–1913)

Dean J. Kotlowski Indiana University Press PDF




Paul Vor ies McNutt was born on July 19, 1891, and he was running for the

White House the second “his umbilical cord was severed.”1 That was what his critics alleged later on. The truth was much more complicated. “He was a smart boy,” John Crittenden McNutt, his father, remembered, “but we never thought he might be President.”2 Ruth Neely McNutt, Paul’s mother, saw her first and only offspring as a “child of destiny,” although not necessarily bound for the

White House.3 Indeed, as her son launched his campaign to succeed President

Franklin D. Roosevelt, Ruth had trouble remembering the precise time of Paul’s birth. It had occurred around four o’clock in the afternoon, but the difficulty of the labor seemingly had clouded her memory. “Too bad,” Ruth related, “we did not foresee the possibility of sometime needing to know the exact time.”4

On one level, there was something commonplace about the young McNutt.

Paul was the scion of a middle-income family residing in the middle section of a midwestern state. As a boy and young man, he sought to be part of a group.

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Medium 9781588435699


Barbara & Stillman Rogers Hunter Publishing ePub

M ost travelers in Nova Scotia pass through one of its most interesting sections, sometimes twice in the same trip, without ever stopping. This triangular area is bounded by three bodies of water, two of them part of the fascinating Bay of Fundy tide system and the other the mild-mannered Northumberland Strait. Between them, in this quiet corner so often ignored, is a rolling, hilly land with sea bluffs, tidal estuaries and long, smooth warm-water beaches. Here too is the world's largest marshland and world-class fossil cliffs. 

Geographically, Nova Scotia is very close to being an island. Between the New Brunswick towns of Port Elgin and Aulac, 15 miles apart at the end of the Cumberland Basin, and Amherst and the village of Tidnish facing them on the Nova Scotia side of the border, lies only the great Tantramar Marsh. It is the largest in the world, so vast that, except for the highway and a narrow road between Port Elgin and Tidnish Bridge, it forms an impenetrable barrier to the mainland. The marsh is an important waterfowl and bird sanctuary and breeding ground. The broad, gentle sweep of its grasses and the almost ethereal light that hovers over them has served as an inspiration to hundreds of Canadian poets and writers. 

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Medium 9781626563254

#40 Stay the Course

John Manning Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Disciplined Leaders know good execution is vital to their success. They have to be good at it, but they also have to find ways to get the entire organization to execute well, too. Why? If their team can’t execute, they are not going to accomplish whatever they have set out to do.

MAP drives this point home with its clients by showing a scene in the movie Hoosiers. It provides a classic example of how staying the course and executing against a predefined strategy can make or break success. In this scene, a key player takes over the basketball game, totally disregarding the coach’s strategy: pass the ball four times before you shoot. The star player sinks shot after shot, overlooking his teammates’ role in the game and undermining the coach’s instructions. Believing in the discipline of sticking to his strategy, the coach benches the star player and refuses to let him rejoin the game even when another team member fouls out. There, the star player sits off court while the others play on with the disadvantage of only four team members.

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