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Medium 9781449357849

15. Ambiguity Revisited

Slice ePub May 28, 2014

Seal up the mouth of outrage for a while,

Till we can clear these ambiguities

William Shakespeare:

As mentioned at several points in earlier chapters, David McGoveran has a proposal for resolving the ambiguities that can arise in connection with view updating (in the absence of information equivalence, that is). In this final chapter, I want to say something about that proposal. Before I do, however, there are some points I must make absolutely clear:

To say only that his proposal resolves the ambiguities doesnt begin to do justice to Davids scheme overall. Rather, that scheme is (of course) a scheme for addressing the database updating issue in its entirety. It begins by recognizing that, as I explained in Chapter2, the only true variablethe only thing that can really be updated, logically speakingis the entire database (or dbvar, rather, though it doesnt use that term). The database, and the relvars within that database, are characterized by predicates; however, those predicates, unlike the ones Ive been talking about in this book, are completely formal in nature. In particular, they completely subsume what in Chapter2 I called the total database constraint. Update requests too are expressed in terms of such predicates (they might refer to relvars by name for user convenience, but such references serve merely as shorthand for the pertinent relvar predicates). Implementing an update request then consists in combining the database predicates and update predicates appropriately and computing the relation or relations that together satisfy such combined predicates; those relations then effectively constitute the updated portion of the database.[149] For further details, I refer you to Davids patents, which were cited in the Concluding Remarks section of Chapter3.

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Medium 9780596514525

How Excel Tries to Help

Slice ePub May 27, 2014

Excel has a lot going on (you can decide whether that means Excel is "feature rich" or "bloated"), and it should make your life easier. And it does, with several automated features. One useful task Excel performs in the background is saving AutoRecover informationworksheet data, macros, formulas, if the program crashes, you lose as little work as possible. There are three other things Excel does in the background (AutoCorrect, AutoComplete, and Smart Tags), but you can turn theseand AutoRecoveroff if you wish.

One thing Excel doesn't do automatically is highlight suspected spelling and grammar errors in your worksheet. To check spelling, click Review Spelling.

People make the same spelling mistakes again and again, usually those little transpositions ("adn" for "and") that drive you crazy. Don't fret. Excel has this and other common misspellings in its list terms to correct automatically.

If Excel makes a change you don't want, you can undo the change by pressing Ctrl-Z or clicking the Undo button on the Quick Access Toolbar.

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Medium 9781565923584

Error Handling

Slice PDF May 27, 2014

Chapter 6Error Handling


Error Handling

Who was Murphy? I don’t know, but I know his law well enough: “Whatever can go wrong will.” As application developers, we quickly learn that assumption and complacency lead to disaster. It’s no good telling users that you didn’t expect them to enter the word Four instead of the number 4, or that you didn’t know that one part of the system entered a Null value into a database field that you were trying to read. Neither users nor MIS managers want excuses; they want applications that work—and by work I mean applications that don’t curl up in the corner and die at the first sign of trouble. Sure, errors and situations beyond your control—such as a database server that unexpectedly goes off-line—are going to happen, but that shouldn’t kill your application. At the very least, you should be in a position to report back to the user what the problem is without generating a runtime error that will bring down your application.

We’ll assume that you have set the Option Explicit statement at the start of each module (so there can’t be any variable name typos),* and that you have started your program with a full compile (CTRL+F5) so that you won’t encounter any syntax errors.

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Medium 9781907556579

Tournament Formats for mixed 3 & 4 Ball Teams

Slice ePub September 06, 2013



It is not always possible to have all 4 ball teams in a Tournament or Competition. Only certain games lend themselves to this situation. Below are a number of games that do work in these situations.

1.     Scratch Stroke Play all players play off scratch, each team adds the total no of strokes taken by all Players in the team. The team with the lowest number of strokes taken wins. Teams of 3 divide their total by 3 & multiply the result by 4.

2.     Scratch Stableford as above but using their gross score per hole to calculate their Stableford score per hole. Teams of 3 divide their total by 3 & multiply the result by 4.The team with the most Stableford points wins.

3.     Stableford as above but each player uses their Handicap allowance and their nett strokes to calculate their Stableford score per hole. Teams of 3 divide their total by 3 & multiply the result by 4.The team with the most Stableford points wins.

4.     Strike 3 Stroke Play Here each player is allowed to discard their 3 worst holes before calculating their total. Teams of 3 divide their total by 3 & multiply the result by 4.The team with the lowest total of strokes (after each individual has discarded their 3 worst holes) wins. A variation is where the three worst holes by the team rather than by individual are discarded.

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Medium 9781934989111

Chapter 3: The Fear Of Inner Solitude

Slice ePub September 06, 2013

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