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Medium 9780596101848

7. Managing QuickBooks Files

Bonnie Biafore O'Reilly Media ePub

When company books were paper ledgers, you had to be careful not to tear the pages, and a spilled drink spelled misfortune. Today, electronic books require their own sort of care and feeding. Protecting your QuickBooks files is essential, not only because your books tell the financial story of your company, but because the computer environment is notorious for chewing up data in all sorts of ways.

QuickBooks files have a few advantages over their paper-based relatives. Most importantly, you can make copies of your company files for safekeeping. (QuickBooks can also create a special copy of your company file so you and your accountant can both work on your company file at the end of the year; see Section 15.4.) QuickBooks files have a few other features that you might consider advantages, but you'll use them so infrequently that they hardly count. This chapter focuses on backing up your QuickBooks files, but it also explains why and how to verify, condense, and delete your files.

If you aren't totally at ease working with files in your computer operating system, Windows XP Pro: The Missing Manual will make you an expert in no time.

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Medium 9781855751170

CHAPTER 7. Converting a teaching event into consultation

David Campbell Karnac Books ePub

Jan Fjordbak


This chapter is about learning the important skills that you have to develop before starting out to do consultation, about reorganizing your previous and on-going experiences to become part of a consultant's identity, and about creating small-scale opportunities to practice consultation.

In recent years, we have seen an increasing interest in consultation work in a broader sense. The number of consultants has increased, and professionals occupied in other functions are trying to work in a more consultative way. In Denmark, this tendency is very visible in areas like school counselling and public agencies supporting developmental activities in the social services, unemployment, the occupational health service, and so forth. It seems as though everybody wants to be a consultants nowadays. Nobody wants to do the real work any more: being a consultant to people doing real work carries more prestige—even better, being a consultant to consultants!

The people who are becoming interested in systemic consultation are mostly social workers with a background in family counselling and psychologists with a clinical background. Some are pressured by their employers, others are themselves eager to expand their held of working into consultation.

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Medium 9780874251845

26 Idea Transfer

Cox Geof HRD Press PDF

50 Activities on Creativity and Problem Solving

26 Idea Transfer (concluded)


1. Similar problems sometimes occur in different situations. Ask participants to identify a different situation from outside the work environment, where there is a problem similar to that at work. Brainstorm the ways of overcoming this particular problem, and then try to identify ways of applying solutions from the new environment to the original problem in the work environment.

2. Continue to use brainstorming to identify ways of achieving the change you want, rather than concentrating on the problem itself. Combine, expand, and develop a number of approaches identified in Step 1 to develop one or two strategies for investigation as potential solutions.


A good Idea Transfer exercise should lead to some interesting possibilities for solutions. The use of analogy is particularly effective in creativity and is one of the starting points for considering a different environment with which to compare the existing problem. The need for a technique to give people permission to break away from traditional methods of thinking, which can become ruts, is worth emphasizing.

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Medium 9780596002145

2.4. Literals

Yukihiro Matsumoto O'Reilly Media ePub

I've often wondered why we programmers are so enamored with literals. I'm waiting for the day when a language comes along and introduces "figuratives." In the interim, the rules Ruby uses for literals are simple and intuitive, as you'll see the following sections.

Strings and numbers are the bread and butter of literals. Ruby provides support for both integers and floating-point numbers, using classes Fixnum, Bignum, and Float.

Integers are instances of class Fixnum or Bignum:

Floating-point numbers are instances of class Float:

A string is an array of bytes (octets) and an instance of class String:

Double-quoted strings allow substitution and backslash notation.

Single-quoted strings don't allow substitution and allow backslash notation only for \\ and \'.

Adjacent strings are concatenated at the same time Ruby parses the program.

#$var and #@var are abbreviated forms of #{$var} and #{@var}. Embeds value of expression in #{...} into a string.

In double-quoted strings, regular expression literals, and command output, backslash notation can be represent unprintable characters, as shown in Table 2-1.

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Medium 9780596007645

17. XML Schemas

Elliotte Rusty Harold O'Reilly Media ePub

Although document type definitions can enforce basic structural rules on documents, many applications need a more powerful and expressive validation method. The W3C developed the XML Schema Recommendation to address these needs. Schemas can describe complex restrictions on elements and attributes. Multiple schemas can be combined to validate documents that use multiple XML vocabularies. This chapter provides a rapid introduction to key W3C XML Schema concepts and usage, starting with the fundamental structures that are common to all schemas. We begin with a very simple schema and proceed to add more functionality to it until every major feature of XML Schemas has been introduced.

An XML Schema is an XML document containing a formal description of what comprises a valid XML document. A W3C XML Schema Language schema is an XML Schema written in the particular syntax recommended by the W3C.

In this chapter, when we use the word "schema" without further qualification, we are referring specifically to a schema written in the W3C XML Schema language. However, there are numerous other XML Schema languages, including RELAX NG and Schematron, each with their own strengths and weaknesses.

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