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|Sheila White||Karnac Books||ePub|
The aim of this chapter is to show how group dynamics facilitate and moderate the incidence and nature of bullying.
The chapter starts with a review of the research on group behaviour in bullying scenarios. We look at how individuals are received into groups and the factors which influence how well they fit in. We examine the roles taken by group members. These roles are classified in a variety of ways. Most witnesses take a passive stance whilst a few become henchman and assist the bully. Very little support for victims is forthcoming from group members. Some individuals act as scapegoats on behalf of the group and are expelled. Bullying also occurs between groups.
The second part of the chapter presents a variety of theories on the unconscious and subconscious life of groups. The concept of valency is used to explore how individuals fit, or struggle to find their niche, when joining a group. During times of change, the adjustment process can be facilitated by transitional space and transitional objects. Where these are limited, the ability of individuals and groups to find creative responses to challenging situations is curtailed. We return to the theme of recognition, introduced in Chapter Two, to see how the potential for bullying can arise when individuals feel they are prevented from making a positive contribution to the group. Where there is a violation of real, or imaginary, normative expectations, employees struggle for recognition. This gives rise to shame and various related defensive responses. In the places where empathy should be there is, instead, a black hole.See more
|William Butler Yeats||Carcanet Press Ltd.|
Cumhal called out, bending his head,
Till Dathi came and stood,
With a blink in his eyes at the cave mouth,
Between the wind and the wood.
And Cumhal said, bending his knees,
‘I have come by the windy way
‘To gather the half of your blessedness
‘And learn to pray when you pray.
‘I can bring you salmon out of the streams
‘And heron out of the skies.’
But Dathi folded his hands and smiled
With the secrets of God in his eyes.
And Cumhal saw like a drifting smoke
All manner of blessed souls,
Women and children, young men with books,
And old men with croziers and stoles.
‘Praise God and God’s mother,’ Dathi said,
‘For God and God’s mother have sent
‘The blessedest souls that walk in the world
‘To fill your heart with content.’
‘And which is the blessedest,’ Cumhal said,
‘Where all are comely and good?
‘Is it these that with golden thuribles
‘Are singing about the wood?’
‘My eyes are blinking,’ Dathi said,
‘With the secrets of God half blind,
‘But I can see where the wind goes
‘And follow the way of the wind;See more
|Editors at JIST||JIST Publishing||ePub|
(O*NET 51-2011.00, 51-2021.00, 51-2022.00, 51-2023.00, 51-2031.00, 51-2041.00, 51-2091.00, 51-2092.00, 51-2093.00, and 51-2099.00)
Assemblers and fabricators play an important role in the manufacturing process. They assemble both finished products and the pieces that go into them. The products they assemble using tools, machines, and their hands range from entire airplanes to children’s toys. They fabricate and assemble household appliances, automobiles, computers, electronic devices, and more.
Changes in technology have transformed the manufacturing and assembly process. Modern manufacturing systems use robots, computers, programmable motion control devices, and various sensing technologies. These systems change the way in which goods are made and affect the jobs of those who make them. The more advanced assemblers must be able to work with these new technologies and use them to produce goods.
The job of an assembler or fabricator ranges from very easy to very complicated, requiring a range of knowledge and skills. Skilled assemblers putting together complex machines, for example, begin by reading detailed schematics or blueprints that show how to assemble the machine. After determining how parts should connect, they use hand or power tools to trim, shim, cut, and make other adjustments to fit components together and align properly. Once the parts are properly aligned, they connect them with bolts and screws or by welding or soldering pieces together.See more
‘Of course history is an art - just like all the other sciences.’ It is in the sense of science as an art that most psychoanalysts and psychotherapists, like the historian author of this quip, would think of themselves as researchers. They are materialists. If asked the question, ‘What causes the mind?’ one of their first answers would be, ‘The brain’. We think of the brain as being more fundamental than the mind. In states such as deep unconsciousness, anaesthesia or death, the brain can exist without there being a mind but there are no states - at least that we know of - where mind can exist without brain. Most of us would accept this and all the evidence points in this direction.
However, as we repeatedly learn, human beings cannot bear too much reality. Correct scientific ideas are often irrationally denied. Or scientists can over-use rationalism in a defensive way. They can promote the scientific method of investigation as the only way, ruling out other facts or bodies of knowledge which are difficult to face. Neuroscience and its advances are sometimes used to make the fact that people are persons redundant. Persons have passions. They experience the difficulties that personal relationships often entail. They can carry troubling thoughts, feelings and wishes in their minds. Over the course of life, from being a baby in the womb to infant, from infant to child, from child to adult these relationships and these wishes influence powerfully how the mind - and brain - develops.See more
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