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Medium 9781607321712

SIX Disjuncture between Economic Policy and Sustainable Use of Natural Resources Water Case Studies in Sonora, Mexico

James B. Greenberg University Press of Colorado ePub

Anne Browning-Aiken

For the border states of northern Mexico, water has increasingly become a strategic value as economic development and migration contribute to exponential growth (Lorey 1999). A long history of over-pumping the aquifers, associated with rapid population growth, has led to widespread water scarcity that has intensified in recent years as the result of a prolonged drought. Expansion of the mining industry and privatization of municipal water systems have complicated the management and distribution of water in northern Mexico, while intensification of agriculture—associated with the increased penetration of global capitalism and transnational corporations into northern Mexico—has further depleted water resources.

Sonora ranks among the top five contributing states to agricultural GDP nationwide (Magaña and Conde 2000), and it is the most highly irrigated of the Mexican states, with 15 percent of Mexico’s total irrigated land. Sonora has seven of Mexico’s eighty-one large commercial irrigation districts and alone produces nearly 30 percent of Mexico’s wheat and virtually all of the country’s table grape exports; in addition, it ranks in the top five states for both beef and pork production (Carter 2002; Wilder 2002). At the same time, 12 percent of the border population lacks safe drinking water, and over 30 percent of residents face health problems because of the absence of wastewater, solid waste treatment, or both (Whiteford and Melville 2002:10). Toxic chemicals associated with mining and agricultural pesticides enter drainage canals and water systems (Browning-Aiken 2000; Varady, Romero Lankao, and Hankins 2001:27). Yet access to affordable potable water in arid northern Mexico is key to the sustainability of municipal and agricultural development.

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Medium 9781847770684


Elizabeth Jennings Carcanet Press Ltd. PDF

But more. It is a prayer that he is saying

Wordless, except that written on her breast

He writes his name. This girl he is displaying

Has also brought him rest.


This God is a veil over the world but is also shining at us

Through all growth, hides in the detailed veins of a leaf, in the dance

Of petals in wind, in the four quartered wind also and in

Each different turn of a wave, each diverse groove in the sand, and in

All eyes, whether of fish or lion or a bold child outstaring

The sun. Let the veil be stripped off, the Sufis say, let God

Step out of his own inventions. Let us prepare our poems and music and

Dervishing dances for his delectation. What we seek is to grow to a full

Maturity. The way is freedom, the means and the only means is love.

So they gathered in groups and chanted, others wrote poems, some

Tapped or plucked instruments, and all were preparing a home, a

Paradise for their creator, one who could span the sky and also

Be caught in the cup of a mountain flower, in the wings of a dragon-fly

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Medium 9780876112052

1. On the Plateau where the Rivers Join: Building Fort Concho

Matthews, James T. Texas State Historical Assn Press ePub



IN THE FALL OF 1867 the United States Army established a permanent camp on the plateau where the North and Middle Concho rivers join. For centuries, this high open plateau had remained barren except for passing expeditions or hunting parties. The Jumano Indians had established a village downstream on the North Concho by the 1530s, and Cabeza de Vaca stayed there on his way west in 1534. Almost a century later, between 1629 and 1632, a mission under the leadership of Franciscans Juan de Salas and Diego Lopez conducted Christian services at the thriving Jumano village. By the 1650s Spanish traders from Santa Fe became frequent visitors at the Concho River settlement. Some collected the conchos, or shells, for which the river was named and harvested them for pearls. Around 1690 the Jumanos abandoned the area entirely in the face of Apache advances onto the South Plains of Texas.1

In the mid 1700s the Apaches also moved on to the south and west as the Concho River country came under the control of Comanches, the fearless horsemen of the plains. The Comanche war trail crossed the Conchos on its way from Big Spring to the Rio Grande. As the flags of Spain, Mexico, the Republic of Texas, and finally the United States successively flew over the European settlements of Texas, the Comanches continued to travel freely across the South Plains. Then in 1849, following the war with Mexico, American citizens began to cross West Texas. They came seeking trade routes and trails to the gold fields of California. The United States Army surveyed these routes and proposed that a line of outposts be established along the Comanche frontier to enforce peace through a strong military presence among the tribes. In March 1852 troops manned Camp Joseph E. Johnston, a temporary site on the North Concho River. It was abandoned with the founding of Fort Chadbourne on a tributary of the Colorado River in October 1852. Patrols from Fort Chadbourne scouted south along the Concho River throughout the 1850s. Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee led one of the scouting expeditions in the summer of 1856. In 1858 the short-lived Butterfield Overland Mail route crossed the North Concho and ran west along the Middle Concho on its way to the Horsehead Crossing on the Pecos River and then on to California.2

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Medium 9781449368302

4. Channels

Hari Shreedharan O'Reilly Media ePub

Channels are buffers that sit in between sources and sinks. As such, channels allow sources and sinks to operate at different rates. Channels are key to Flume’s guarantees of not losing data (of course, when configured properly). Sources write data to one or more channels, which are read by one or more sinks. A sink can read only from one channel, while multiple sinks can read from the same channel for better performance. Channels have transactional semantics that allow Flume to provide explicit guarantees about the data written in a channel.

Having a channel operating as a buffer between sources and sinks has several advantages. The channel allows sources operating on the same channel to have their own threading models without being worried about the sinks reading from the channel, and vice versa. Having a buffer in between the sources and the sinks also allows them to operate at different rates, since the writes happen at the tail of the buffer and reads happen off the head. This also allows the Flume agents to handle “peak hour” loads from the sources, even if the sinks are unable to drain the channels immediately.

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Medium 9781449398255

21. Introducing Adobe AIR

Chris Grover O'Reilly Media ePub

Flash began life as a program for creating cool animations in files small enough to send over the Internet. Flash has evolved since then, gaining the ability to create interactive animations using ActionScript. During the same period, the Internet grew up, and the line between desktop applications and web-based services has blurred. The next step in Flashs evolution is the ability to create desktop and mobile applications. After all, not all computers are connected to the Internet all the time. Better still, desktop programs dont have the limitations of browser-based apps, which are, for safetys sake, restricted in the ways they can read and write to files on your computer.

And so Adobe developed the open-source AIR system for creating applications that run outside a web browser. AIR lets you develop powerful applications using your Flash and ActionScript skills, and do it quickly. This chapter introduces the concepts behind Adobe AIR and shows you how to create a bare-bones AIR application. Youll learn how to convert your existing Flash animations into an AIR desktop application. Throughout, youll find tips explaining where you can learn more about AIR and how other developers are using it. The following chapters show how to apply your AIR skills when building apps for the iPhone operating system (iOS) and Android handhelds.

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