W PHP acuchy znakw s sekwencjami znakw, na przykad Trzymamy si prawdy, by by waciwie zrozumianymi albo Pewnego razu, czy nawet 111211211. Kiedy odczytujemy dane z pliku lub przesyamy je do przegldarki, dane te maj posta acuchw znakw.
acuchy znakw w PHP s binarnie bezpieczne (to znaczy mog zawiera puste bajty), oraz tym, e mog by wyduane lub skracane na danie. Ich rozmiar jest ograniczany jedynie iloci dostpnej pamici.
acuchy znakw jzyka PHP s zazwyczaj cigami ASCII. Operowanie danymi wykraczajcymi poza zbir ASCII, na przykad cigami UTF-8 lub znakami zapisanymi w kodowaniu wielobajtowym, wymaga dodatkowego nakadu pracy.
acuchy znakw mona inicjalizowa na trzy sposoby, analogiczne pod wzgldem formy i efektw dziaania do sposobw znanych z Perla i powoki systemu Unix: pojedynczymi cudzysowami, cudzysowami podwjnymi oraz za pomoc formatu here document (heredoc). W przypadku acuchw znakw w pojedynczych cudzysowach jedynymi znakami specjalnymi, wobec ktrych trzeba stosowa sekwencje unikowe, s odwrotny ukonik oraz sam cudzysw pojedynczy. Cztery tego typu acuchy przedstawia Przykad1-1.
Before offering our own observations and model of the development of parent-infant interaction, we would like to review briefly some of the important studies which have opened up an understanding of the neonatal period and furthered our own research. The observation and analysis of parent-infant interactions has a fairly brief history—less than fifty years.
In the psychoanalytic field, direct observation of children and mothers has been developing since the late 1940s. Rene Spitz and Anna Freud studied children’s behavior in situations where they were separated from parents, in institutions and under war conditions respectively (Spitz, 1946,1964; A. Freud, 1936). Their studies alerted observers to the defensive operations that these stressful situations triggered in children. Thus the first insights into the nature of the child’s dependency on important adults came from studies in which mothers were absent. These drastic experiments of nature underlined the powerful nature of the bond between mother and child. Descriptions of the severe pathology which resulted from the deprivation of mothering gave us deeper insight into the critical nature of this earliest relationship.
Object relations theory. Systems thinking and structuralism
A system is a set of units with relationship among them.
Ludvig Von Bertalanffy, General Systems Theory, 1968
Time is the particular instant at which a structure exists—the measurable period over which a structure endures.
James G. Miller, Living Systems, 1965
The mind is peopled by part objects and by images and subcultures of the past, and it is only by introducing the microcultural dimension that structural transformations can take place between systems and cohesion become coherence. Under the reciprocal influence of evolving microcultures, dialogue can become humanized by real here-and-now people and their dialogue. The subhuman subculture of the past, and the indifferent macrocul-ture of the social environment, can be viewed against the creative microculture of the present median group, so that instead of identifying with the subcultures and social mac-roculture, we are now able to scrutinize them from the distance of this new perspective. Microcounter-culture is the specific metastructural dimension of the larger group, bringing about transformations in the part objects of individual subcultures and in the attitudes to the surrounding macrostructures of the social environment—e.g. the family subculture gives way to the social macroculture of a horde mentality, of a family writ large, as Freud would have it.
The brains of your home theater are always going to be in your audio processor. Most folks at least begin with a receiver, which has to handle the demanding task of preamplification and processing, as well as pumping out power to your speakers. Getting the right receiver is crucial.
Receivers are tricky creatures, and a lot like Microsoft Office; you'll often find lots of bells and whistles, but it's not easy to figure out what you actually need. Assuming you want to impress your buddies, there are some definite requirements.
Ensure that any receiver you look at has Dolby Digital EX (6.1/7.1-channel decoding) and DTS-ES (6.1-channel decoding). These are usually well represented on both the box and the face of the unit (see Figure 3-1).
Ensure you have at least two coaxial audio inputs and two optical inputs. Many higher-end components will have both sets on their output strip, but you'll want to use coaxial when possible, so the more the merrier.
Figure3-1.Dolby Digital and DTS logos
Tim Taylor, eat your heart out. Until you break your receiver into separates, it's going to be both the controller and the amplifier in your system, so buy high. Going less than 80W per channel is a waste of time, and 100W in each channel is worth the extra cost.
THE PREVIOUS CHAPTERS HAVE SHOWN YOU how the Macrobolic Nutrition approach provides the core building blocks for you to experience tremendous increases in muscle building, strength, and performance, while promoting leanness. You will be extremely satisfied with the results you will get from following the core Macrobolic Nutrition program alone, but this program can be intensified by using the special Up Your MASS muscle-building nutrition products. This combination of program and nutritional product will take your body into a hyperanabolic state that you have never experienced before, and that until now has only rarely been encountered by top bodybuilders. Once your body enters into this Macrobolic-induced lean muscle-building mode, your body will undergo that Herculean transformation you are looking for, culminating in a massive, superior sculpted physique.
However, if you are like me and other champion athletes, you want to know if you are doing everything possible to pump out that extra rep, to get the results you want—faster. If you have the same competitive spirit that I have, it is natural to be wondering, Is there anything else I can do to enhance the Macrobolic Nutrition effect? For example, you may want to get bigger faster, stronger faster, and/or leaner faster. I know that is what I wanted: the fastest and best results possible. I spent years of research and development to determine if any additional ingredients and delivery-system technologies existed to enhance the Macrobolic Nutrition effect. I determined that the answer is yes, there are extra measures you can take to further enhance Macrobolic Nutrition, and now I will share the results of this massive research effort with you—my secrets of how to enhance the Macrobolic Nutrition lean muscle-building effect.