Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein made by normal cells as well as prostate cells, according to the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. It is located in the blood and is measured by a blood test. PSA tests are often used to follow men after prostate cancer treatment, and PSA testing is still being evaluated to see if finding cancer early lowers the risk of dying from the cancer.1
PSA levels can rise if a man has prostate cancer, but a high PSA reading is not proof of cancer. Other things can raise PSA levels, and these may give a false positive test result. A false positive test says that a condition exists, when in fact it does not.
These variables include having BPH or prostatitis, or if the prostate gland is disturbed in any way—riding a bicycle or motorcycle, a digital rectal exam, orgasm within the previous twenty-four hours, or prostate biopsy or surgery that can disturb the gland. In addition, some prostate glands naturally produce more PSA than others, and PSA levels go up with age. African-American men tend to have higher PSA levels than men of other races.
STANDARDIZED TEST PRACTICE: Grammar and Punctuation
Standardized English exams usually test your ability to spell, use correct grammar, and read and understand passages. Most have a vocabulary section. Practice is the best way to prepare for a standardized test.
A. Fill in a bubble to answer each question below. Hint: For completion sentences, try out each answer choice in your mind. Use the one that sounds right or makes the most sense.
DIRECTIONS: Read each question carefully. Choose the word or group of words that best completes each sentence.
1. The children went to ___________ rooms for a nap.
a. ❍ they’re
c. ❍ there
d. ❍ they
2. The fireworks display ___________ especially exciting last year.
b. ❍ their
a. ❍ was
b. ❍ is
c. ❍ were
d. ❍ will be
3. Mitch was the __________ of the three boys.
a. ❍ taller
b. ❍ tall
c. ❍ tallest
d. ❍ most tall
B. Fill in a bubble to answer the question below. Hint: Answers dealing with capitalization and punctuation can look alike. Read all answer choices carefully.
American culture. We use it to greet people, wish them luck, seal an agreement, and to put an end to an argument. Ages ago, extending an open hand was a way to show enemies that you were not carrying a weapon.
Today, handshaking has evolved into a powerful way to express feelings.
The handshake is an important communication tool. Most people believe that the “limp-fish” handshake lacks personality and commitment.
But just how firm should a handshake be? And how long should you go on shaking hands?
One professional employment agency actually teaches people the fine art of the handshake. “Always smile when you shake hands,” one of the instructors advises. “People can’t
help smiling back if you smile at them first.” Clients are further instructed to maintain eye contact for as long as the handshake continues.
When the other person finishes greeting you, the handshake should comfortably break off.
I consider politics, political action, all forms of politics, as inferior values and inferior activities of the mind.
T R C: H G K
It is December , just over a month since German capitulation and the end of fighting in the Great War. Kaiser Wilhelm II has abdicated and fled to the Netherlands, bringing to an end five hundred years of Prussian domination by the Hohenzollern dynasty. In Kiel the German navy mutinies, and the black, red and gold flag of the republic flutters over the Reichstag. Karl
Liebknecht calls for a socialist revolution. The Berlin Dada Club invents the dada two-step, as a preamble to world revolution.
Western values are collapsing. On the way to lunch, Count Harry
Kessler pays a visit to the Kaiser’s private apartments; there, in the
Imperial Palace, among the shattered glass, looted furniture and broken swagger-sticks, the whole tawdriness of the atmosphere out of which war had come weighs on him. ‘In this rubbishy, trivial, unreal microcosm, furnished with nothing but false values which deceived him and others, he made his judgements, plans, and decisions. Morbid taste and a pathologically excitable character in charge of an all too well-oiled machine of state. Now the symbols of his futile animating spirit lie strewn around here in the shape of doltish odds and ends. I feel no sympathy, only aversion and complicity when I reflect that this world was not done away with long ago…’
ne of the earliest scientific articles about ketones appeared in the German literature in 1865 by J. Gerhardt. This article discusses the discovery of ketones in the urine of people with diabetes. Thirty years later, another German article discussed the presence of an abundance of ketones in the urine of people who were in diabetic coma (Hirschfield, 1895). For many years thereafter, ketones were simply thought to be abnormal byproducts of disease, such as diabetes. Even today, many doctors think of diabetic ketoacidosis when they first hear about the discussion of ketones and Alzheimers disease. They worry that their patients might become acidotic if they consume medium-chain fatty acids. This is simply not true (see section on Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Chapter 16).
ORIGIN OF THE KETOGENIC DIET
The story of the effect of ketones in treating disease actually begins much earlier. There are historical references to fasting as a successful treatment for epilepsy and seizures in the Bible and again in the literature of the Middle Ages. In 1921, a pediatrician, Rawle Geyelin, M.D., reported at an American Medical Association convention successful treatment of three patients with epilepsy by an osteopath, Hugh Conklin, D.O. One of these patients was a ten-year-old boy with severe epilepsy who endured two very long periods of fasting, after which he had no seizures for the next year. Dr. Geyelin also reported that eighteen of twenty-six patients he treated showed marked improvement, and two were seizure-free for more than a year. He found that a twenty-day fast appeared to have the best results. Drs. Geyelin and Conklin did not know at that point that starvation produces high levels of ketones, and that these high levels of ketones were almost certainly responsible for the reduction of seizures in their patients.