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Medium 9781934009604

2: Forms of Communication

Kim Davis Solution Tree Press ePub

We all use behavior to communicate in everyday life. We are constantly communicating without ever saying a word. This is true for you and for us, for young children, school-aged children, college students, adults of all shapes, sizes, colors, and abilities, as well as for people who may or may not use the spoken word to communicate. Everyone communicates! To understand each other, we need to learn to listen to more than words.

Not all behaviors are meant to be communicative, however. Communication theorists debate as to when exactly children begin to communicate “on purpose.” In fact, although as competently communicating adults we are able to monitor our facial expressions and body language, most of the time expressions and body language are not under our conscious control, and therefore are not intentional communication. Many of the behavioral cues we interpret to get information are not intentionally used to send a message. Think about your posture when you are watching a great action scene in a movie. Then think about your posture when you are impatiently waiting in the grocery line. Finally, think about your posture when you are engaged in a conversation with someone you love dearly. In each situation, your body sends a message to anyone who is “listening,” even though you probably aren’t conscious of sending any message at all. We can also use our posture to send a message on purpose—as when a teacher puts her hands on her hips to show she means business—but most of our communication through body language is unconscious, automatic, and unintentional.

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Medium 9780253357021

4 The Thought of the Nothing: Heidegger’s “What Is Metaphysics?” (1929)

Leonard Lawlor Indiana University Press ePub

Before we turn to the transition that Heidegger represents, let us recapitulate the structure of thinking we have seen up to this point. First, the starting point is Cartesian. This kind of thinking starts from immanence. Freud is not an exception to this claim since he too speaks of inner perception. Yet, and second, we have seen a transformation of immanence into difference. All the philosophers we have considered discover within immanence a relation: the battlefield topology of the Ucs and the Cs; the uncommon parallelism between the transcendental and the psychological. Yet it is Bergson who discovers, within immanence, multiplicity. The Bergsonian concept of multiplicity is an incomplete multiplicity since there is no unitary theoretical explanation; the whole is not given. Multiplicity in Bergson is no longer an adjective, modifying multiple things like multiple objects or multiple subjects. Being incomplete, this multiplicity makes immanence immanent to nothing but itself. Husserl recognized that this idea of immanence (continuous heterogeneity) is paradoxical. Therefore, third, immanence requires a thinking beyond logic, beyond “tertium non datur.” In contrast to his definition of multiplicity as determinate, Husserl also, as we saw, argues for a kind of an-exact rigor for phenomenological psychology and for phenomenological philosophy. Similarly, Bergson speaks of improper or fluid concepts. These contestations of traditional or formal logic lead to a new understanding of language: language is more than logic. As Heidegger says (in the 1943 “Postscript” to “What Is Metaphysics?”), “It now becomes necessary to ask the question . . . of whether thinking already stands within the law of its truth when it merely follows the thinking whose forms and rules are conceived by ‘logic.’ . . .‘Logic’ is only one interpretation of the essence of thinking” (GA 9: 308/PM: 235). But then, fourth, and following from this transformation of the concept of language and thinking, Bergson, Freud, and Husserl call for a reform of psychology. For Husserl, in particular, we saw that the epoché must be universal, the universal suspension of all positing of existence whether in everyday life or in science. The universality of the epoché means the overcoming of psychologism, but also, and more importantly, going beyond the reform of psychology, it means the overcoming of dogmatic-positivistic metaphysics. The universal method of the epoché leads at first to what looks like a renewal of metaphysics, but then to an overcoming of metaphysics as such. Therefore the four components of the structure of this thinking, of the research agenda called continental philosophy, are: (1) the starting point in immanence; (2) the transformation of immanence into multiplicity; (3) the liberation of language (and thinking) from logic; and (4) the overcoming of metaphysics. Overcoming metaphysics means the creation of concepts oriented by the idea that the whole is not given, that is, the creation of concepts not oriented by the idea that all things are defined by the ready availability of what is present before our eyes, that is, by static forms and teleological genesis. But it is Heidegger who shows us that the overcoming of metaphysics includes a transformation of humanity. Heidegger represents the transition from the renewal of metaphysics to the overcoming of metaphysics. But to overcome metaphysics, we must ask, “What is metaphysics?”

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Medium 9781855754577

4. From the Individual to ‘The Collective’: Examining Jung’s Progression from Clinician to Grand Theorist

Nicholas Lewin Karnac Books ePub

We now begin the second phase of the book which explores Jung's conception of the structure of the psyche. This was based on the existence of two psychological mechanisms, that of the collective unconscious and that of archetypes. Briefly put, the first idea postulated that mankind's psychology evolved in stages as different strata of experience that were set down like a ‘geological’ model with racial and national layers. With this perception Jung felt he made a unique contribution to psychology by adding a prehistoric time-scale and a perspective that included the psychological significance of whole societies whether they were isolated tribes or whole races. This perspective is unusual and provides us with a rare opportunity to study a thinker willing to consider the relationship between race, nationalism and psychology. The second idea— archetypes—suggests that there are within the unconscious universal psychic imperatives that are akin to the instincts of our species. With these two ideas, which for brevity's sake will sometimes be referred to as the ‘theories of the collective’, Jung supposed himself to be dealing with a level of psychic activity common to all, which operated at a deeper and wider level beyond the range of most historians or psychologists, and here we must pause for a brief aside on the sensitive subject of race.

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Medium 9781935249788

6 Ensuring Learning

Carolyn Chapman Solution Tree Press ePub

As a normal part of Mrs. Busby’s assessment practices, she gave all of her math students review problems and spent an entire class period running from student to student to make sure they got them correct. Unfortunately, because of this tiring practice, she never had much time to spend with particular students or really ensure learning. After professional development training on assessment, Mrs. Busby decided to try something new. For the current lesson, she made a short formative assessment on simplifying fractions and mixed numbers. She gave it to her students and afterward was able to identify who understood the concepts and did not need any more instruction. She was also able to pinpoint weaknesses in other students’ learning and review with them before the summative assessment. She divided students into groups depending on which objectives they missed. Many were able to work independently to show their learning. This new practice allowed her to work with six students who were completely lost. Mrs. Busby then offered her students a second assessment, and students were much more successful as a result. The summative assessment grade reflected true understanding of simplifying fractions versus a combination of where students were before they were supposed to know the material and how much they gained in the process of instruction. This targeted instruction is an example of how the focus of the classroom shifted from that of teaching to one of learning. The assessments were in direct response to where students were in their learning. In the past, Mrs. Busby planned teaching with little specific attention to how it affected learning. Mrs. Busby’s new assessment practices ensured learning and made classroom time more productive for her and her students.

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Medium 9781937554996

7 Self-Care and Self-Healing Practices

Lucia Thornton Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

“Every man is the builder of a temple called his body.”

–Henry David Thoreau

Chapter 1, “Shifting Toward a Paradigm of Healing and Wellness,” mentioned how a large percentage of chronic disease and illness can be prevented by lifestyle changes. Eating a balanced diet consisting of whole foods, exercising regularly, and not smoking are lifestyle changes that, if implemented, could reduce the incidence of chronic disease dramatically. The World Health Organization (2005) has estimated that if the major risk factors for chronic disease were eliminated, at least 80% of all heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes would be prevented, as would more than 40% of cancer cases.

Norm Shealy, MD, one of the founders of the American Holistic Medical Association, has been an advocate for a healthy lifestyle his entire career. Dr. Shealy, a neurosurgeon, developed the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) unit, which has been widely used for the past several decades in physical therapy and rehabilitation clinics for nerve-related pain conditions. He quit the practice of conventional medicine and established clinics for pain and depression using primarily natural supplements, TENS units, acupuncture, and body-mind-spirit interventions. During the course of his practice, Dr. Shealy has cared for more than 35,000 clients and achieved an 85% success rate in treating patients with depression and pain, largely without the use of antidepressants or analgesics. Dr. Shealy has spent a lifetime researching technology, natural supplements, mind-body-spirit interventions, and developing programs and schools that foster wellness and heal the whole person. As outlined in the upcoming sidebar, his suggestions for creating wellness in our lives involve a healthy lifestyle, a positive attitude, and the use of natural supplements.

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