companies suffering from “let’s get one of everything” syndrome are unlikely to settle on PL/SQL as their standard language for procedural database programs.
Limited object-oriented features
(Beginners, skip this paragraph.) Up until Version 9, PL/SQL was lacking in object-oriented programming language features, although Version 8 did add support for abstract datatypes. Object-based programming was even reasonable to achieve using PL/SQL packages in Version 7. Oracle9i introduced more objectoriented features, such as multi-level collections, inheritance, and runtime polymorphism, although there are still some unfortunate limitations such as no private methods.
Now just hold on here, you’re saying to yourself—if PL/SQL is often only part of a complete application, and only works with the Oracle database, why not just use one of the multi-purpose languages like C or Java for everything? Why bother with
PL/SQL at all?
Why Use PL/SQL?
To fully understand why and where PL/SQL is a good fit, it’s important to understand the limitations of alternate languages. Let’s first hark back to the early days and find out why PL/SQL exists at all.
Tears were shed, and promises were made. Some pledged to carry out Clemente’s dream of creating a Sports City
for young people in Puerto Rico.
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Clemente’s long career with the
Pirates had produced fabulous statistics that made an election into the Baseball Hall of Fame likely. Under the rules, a player must be retired for five years before his name can be placed on the Hall of Fame ballot.
According to Rennie, Phillips, and Quartaro (1988) there is a growing consensus to the effect that psychology has overestimated methodologically correct research to the detriment of thinking and creativity. As a result, theorising is less respected and known than trivial, busy-work empirical research (Bakan, 1967; Brandt, 1982; Endler, 1984; Gergen, 1982; Secord, 1982). In the same vein, Granger (1994) questions the indiscriminate use of the experimental method in clinical and social psychology, calling instead for an increased use of the potentially richer methods of observation and modelling. It should be pointed out that theorising is in no way easier than research. “(Theorising) demands a considerable effort of concentration, examination, and re-examination. It is the antithesis of casual reflection, lazy reading, and undisciplined speculation” (Gottfredson, 1983). Feyerabend (1975, p. 520) suggests that we all need a good dose of methodological anarchy to help us find new ideas!
Gestalt psychotherapy: from object relations to hermeneutic dialogue
In our revision of the Gestalt theory of human nature, we have attempted to fill in some of the gaps in the original version by incorporating several elements from the endopsychic structural approach of Fairbairn. As we have progressed, it has become clear that both schools see the healthy adult as free from the need for compensatory attachment to internal objects, his or her energy being entirely available for contacts and interactions with other individuals in the environment. This vision of the healthy adult can be considered to constitute the goal of deep psychotherapy, in that the individual with a personality disorder invests an inordinate amount of energy in the introjected microfields, thus limiting his capacity for creative adjustments in the external Field.
In order to arrive at a complete therapeutic system in Mahrer's sense of the term, we need to add a theory of psychotherapy that would be consistent with our theory of human nature. But in the context of our functional-deductive epistemological approach, it would be premature to attempt such a step. As clinical experience progressively validates or eliminates hypotheses, such a theory could develop; in the meantime we will propose a provisional foundation for a Gestalt theory of the psychotherapy of the introjected field—the Gestalt equivalent of object relations—in the context of the treatment of personality disorders. This foundation could serve as a preliminary connection between a revised theory of the Self and a Gestalt clinical practice that remains to be systematically developed. Our aim is not to produce a manual or a guide to clinical psychotherapy, but rather to sketch the boundaries within which, it seems to us, Gestalt psychotherapy should evolve.
Gdy uytkownik zada sobie trud i dostosuje, zgodnie z opisami zamieszczonymi w poprzednich rozdziaach, widoki, tabele i inne elementy, prawdopodobnie bdzie chcia ich uywa we wszystkich projektach albo przynajmniej udostpni je znajomym. Informacje, ktre chce si wykorzysta ponownie, mona zapisa w plikach programu MS Project 2007 zwanych szablonami. Niektre niestandardowe elementy (menu, paski narzdzi i mapy) s umieszczane w specjalnym pliku, szablonie globalnym, natomiast inne pozostaj w pliku, w ktrym zostay utworzone. Z kolei ten ostatni plik mona przeksztaci w niestandardowy szablon.
Czci etapu zamykania projektu jest archiwizacja wykonanej pracy, dokumentowanie tego, czego si nauczono, oraz zapisanie informacji w taki sposb, aby mogy z nich skorzysta inne osoby (Co zrobi z informacjami o projekcie?). Niezalenie od tego, czy s to zadania, ktre mog by wykorzystywane w rnych projektach, czy te standardowe widoki i raporty informujce o stanie, dziki szablonom programu MS Project 2007 mona je udostpni wszystkim osobom, ktre bd ich potrzeboway w przyszych projektach.