Chapter4: Accommodating Mathematics for Students With Special Needs Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler.—Albert Einstein
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000, pp. 12–14) established the following as its equity principle: “High expectations and worthwhile opportunities for all, accommodating differences to help everyone learn mathematics, and providing resources and support for all classrooms and students.”Accommodations are practices and procedures of presentation, response, setting, and timing or scheduling that provide equitable access during instruction and assessment. Accommodations are tools that assist students in accessing the curriculum, just as eyeglasses or corrective lenses allow many people to access written material.Modifications are changes in the content and/or curriculum and performance expectations. Only after implementing high-quality, effective instruction and trying all appropriate accommodations in the classroom should modifying the grade-level expectations be even considered. Data reflecting that the student is incapable of accessing grade-level mathematics, along with the list and results of documented quality accommodations tried, are critical in making the decision to modify the curriculum for a student. Modifications or changes to the curriculum can only be made through an individualized education program (IEP) committee and must be recorded in an IEP document.See more
yaluronic acid (HA) is an important structural component of your eyes, and it is also concentrated in your skin and joints. HA plays an important role in the prevention of glaucoma, floaters, macular holes, and vitreous and retinal detachment.
Hyaluronic acid, the major water-holding molecule in human and animal tissues, is a very long alternating molecule of glucosamine and gluconic acid. HA binds salt and water so powerfully that just 1,000 mg of HA holds up to six liters (quarts) of water in living tissues. By virtue of its ability to hold water in a gel, HA provides structure to our eyes by filling the space between cells.
With advancing age, eyes actually shrink in their sockets, shriveling because of loss of water. Every decade, the eyes actually lose about 1 percent of their water content, and aging eyes also lead to a reduced amount of HA, a loss that is accelerated in diabetes.
The clear fluid in the front of the eyes; poor outflow of aqueous fluid may elevate fluid pressure and damage the optic nerve at the back of the eyes.
If youre not interested in parallel processing, the area where
youre most likely to encounter threads in Java is in dealing with I/Oand
particularly in dealing with network I/O. Thats the topic we explore in
In early versions of Java, all I/O was blocking. If your program
attempted to read data from a socket and no data was present, the read() method would block until at least some
data was available. That situation is also true of reading a file. For the
most part, delays in reading files arent noticeable; you may have to wait
a few cycles for the disk to rotate to the correct location and the
operating system to transfer data from the disk. In most programs,
blocking for that amount of time makes little difference, but in those
programs where it does make a difference, the concepts that apply to
network I/O are just as relevant to file I/O.
For network I/O, the delay can be quite significant. Networks are
subject to delays at various points (particularly if the network involves
long distances or slow links). Even if theres no physical delay on the
network lines, network I/O is done in the context of a conversation
between two peers, and a peer may not be ready to furnish its output when
its partner wants it. A database server reads commands from a user, but
the user may take a few minutes to type in the SQL to be executed. Once
the SQL has been sent to the database, the user is ready to read back the
response, but it may take the database a few minutes to obtain the results
of the query.
Chloe is curious about something. She wonders what objects she can find at home that come in groups. First, she thinks about groups of two. What comes in groups of two?
Chloe goes into her closet first. Shoes and socks come in twos, and mittens and earmuffs do, too.
Chloe visits her kitchen.
The salt and pepper shakers come in twos. A fork and a knife on the table come in twos. She notices the toaster and sees that it has two slots.
That works in this group, too.
Chloe’s mom gives her an idea.
Look in the mirror! There are other things that come in twos.
That reminds Chloe of something. Fingers and toes come in groups of five. They can also make groups of ten!
What about groups of twelve? Chloe counts eggs, her muffin tin, and her horse collection. All of those things come in groups of twelve.
Her mom has a question. She asks Chloe why she cares about groups. Chloe says, “I like it when things are not alone because a group is like a family.” Her mom likes the kind thoughts behind Chloe’s answer.
The following paper, given here in a much shortened and edited version, was read to the British Psycho-Analytical Society in 1937. It throws light on another side of Foulkes’ interests and also includes an early mention of ego psychology.
Since the psychology of the ego and its relation to actual reality has come into the range of psychoanalytic investigation, works like that of Helen Keller (1908) have acquired a definite interest for us, though they do not carry any evidence on more classical psychoanalytic topics. The interest in ego psychology has grown particularly on the Continent, due I think to the more acute course of social developments there. The constant interference of external circumstances has led to observations on how far deeply established formations, such as our ego and superego (but not the id), can be influenced and altered by the social situation. Instead of considering this unrestful time as an accidental disturbance of our work we gradually realized that it showed an underlying factor at work, one we have to reckon with in practice and in science as long as human beings will be living in a social way.