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Medium 9781855757103

Introduction: The Relevance of the First Years for Personality Development

Gertraud Diem-Wille Karnac Books ePub


The relevance of the first years for personality development

“The past is not dead,
it isn't even gone.”

—William Faulkner

At first, Freud's (1905) insight that the early years are of paramount importance in personality development encountered strong opposition and lack of understanding. His view of the child as a sexual being that from birth on struggled with the emotions of love and hate, Eros and the death instinct, clashed with the widely held sentimental understanding of a child's innocence. The Bible verse, “Let the little children come to me and do not hinder them, for to such belongs the kingdom of heaven” (Matthew 19: 14, The Bible, English Standard Version, 2001) was wrongly understood as a confirmation of the inexperience, naiveté, and innocence of children. Children's cruel sides, their jealousy and envy or exhibitionistic behaviour, were barely noted or only smiled at, since such behaviour in a child had a strange effect, and adults averted their shock with laughter. The assumption was that children did not yet understand anything about painful feelings. We can compare the psychoanalytical understanding of the early years as a foundation of personality development with the taking root of a young tree. The early aspects of development form the roots, without which a living tree cannot exist. A deep, affectionate relationship to the parents/caregivers permits the development of deep and strong-building roots, which also provides firmness and security during stormy phases of life. Insufficient mothering and adverse environmental conditions allow only a superficial building of roots, which then perhaps offer insufficient stability in developmental crises. The high child mortality in orphanages1, where only the child's physical well-being is attended to, indicates that a minimum of life-sustaining functions, such as emotional allocation and positive surroundings, must be present for the child to survive psychologically. Early maldevelopments such as autism or hospitalism can be traced back to early experiences of deprivation (Alvarez, 2001; Spitz, 1945).

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Medium 9781937538231

Appendix A: Menu and Function Commands

Brian Matsumoto D Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

This appendix lists all of the Sony NEX-6 menu commands in order of the camera’s six main menu groups, moving from top left to bottom right: Camera, Image Size, Brightness/Color, Playback, Applications, and Setup. Both the Image Size and Setup menus also have submenus.

The list is broken into sections, with the menu name listed on a black line and submenu, if applicable, on a separate black line within a set of parentheses. The list of associated commands follows. Each main command and its description are listed highlighted in gray. The commands’ available options and their descriptions are listed below the command. Note the commands’ default options are denoted by the addition of “(Default).”

Example 1 shows a command with two options, where option 1 is the default.

Example 1

Menu Name



Command Name

Command description

Option 1 (Default)

Option 1 description

Option 2

Option 2 description

Due to the limitations of some eBook reading devices, the formatting of the following tables may be problematic. This is beyond the control of the publisher. For a downloadable PDF version of the Appendices please visit

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Medium 9781574413168

2. Hawaii

Phil Scearce University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter 2


Six B-24 Liberators approached Hickam Field on the morning of

February 9, 1943, arriving from Hamilton Field, California. Aboard aircraft number 41-24214, Sergeant Herman Scearce got up from the radio operator’s table for a better view.

From the southwest, Hickam Field lay directly ahead. The dark green mountains of the Koolau Range rose in the distance, wispy clouds hanging close to the ridge line. To the left, beside the air base, were dozens of fat, round, fuel storage tanks, and beyond those, Pearl Harbor’s aquamarine water seemed to glow.

“There’s the Arizona,” Deasy said.

On final approach, Scearce and the crew had just a moment to put eyes on the battleship, resting beside Ford Island, its gray structure rising above a shining, luminescent pool of oil.

“Sons o’ bitches,” Sgt. Jack Yankus muttered, from his fold-down jump seat on the flight deck between Deasy, in the left seat, and Catanzarite on the right. Yankus was ready to call out the aircraft’s speed, the flight engineer’s job during landings. His comment resonated for a moment, hanging there, profound. “Okay . . . 130,” he said next.

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Medium 9781847770684

For Any Newish Poet

Elizabeth Jennings Carcanet Press Ltd. PDF

He wants all men to share his appetite

For truth. It is a way of life, a choice

Of how to be and know. He claims no right

But tries to be a civilised, true voice.

For Any Newish Poet

There is this habit now of nonchalance –

One writes of death but doesn’t use the word.

They might allow the words ‘a dance of death’

Or something overheard.

There is this habit of concealing art:

You do not say you fear and let alone

Love anyone. You have, of course, a heart

But now it is not done

To say you care. O yes but English verse

Comes echoing back: ‘I am behind the art

I am the feeling when you love to curse,

I am the vital part

Of everything you write.’ Remember Yeats,

Don’t forget Auden’s perfect adjective

So unexpected. English poetry waits

Always for you to give

What feels like novelty. The new is so

Resistant. Never mind. Dare to allow

The word that leaps to mind. O let it grow

And be part of your now.

Prayer: Homage to George Herbert

George Herbert said it all. All I can do

Is show my hesitancies now and try

To fit my different, later words into

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Medium 9781855758414

CHAPTER SEVEN: Silence in therapy

Colum Kenny Karnac Books ePub

Those who encounter silence during therapy have much to teach us about its power in our daily lives. Psychiatrists, psychotherapists, social workers, and other health service professionals meet clients who fall silent in ways that can be frustrating and even threatening to those around them. Silence on the part of the client or patient may be associated with feelings of pleasure or joy or even peace, but it may also be for them a means of expressing anger, apathy, resentment, and other emotions (see, for example, Zeligs and Liegner), or else be a sign of denial. Sometimes, silence stems from a disability. Whatever its base, it is a phenomenon that merits attention. As Sigmund Freud observed in 1905, in the case of Dora,

He that has eyes to see and ears to hear may convince himself that no mortal can keep a secret. If his lips are silent, he chatters with his finger-tips; betrayal oozes out of him at every pore (pp. 77–78).

A number of authors have studied ways in which we fall silent in order to defend ourselves against instinctual urges that threaten us, urges with which we have not come to terms developmentally. In 1961, for example, Zeligs discussed the function of silence in some cases as a type of displacement from the original erotogenic zones to the organs and functions of speech. And according to Sabbadini, a silence that displays such anal connotations is characterized by an ambivalent if not openly aggressive attitude. Fliess further differentiated all silences into oral, anal, or urethral, while Sabbadini postulates the existence of a “phallic silence”. The latter writes that,

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