Arney & Bergen (1984) brought to our attention that both psychotherapists and doctors were not sufficiently aware of the importance of what they called ‘the incitement to talk’, with its implications that people who sought help with personal problems needed encouragement to tell their stories. Freud believed that when his patients were incited to talk about whatever comes into their head, the process he called free-association, they will inevitably reveal in the course of time (and it can be a very long time) most aspects of themselves. He considered patients’ input as vital in helping them to understand themselves and change what they needed to change. The theory underlying the relative positions of the participants, one lying down on a sofa and the other sitting behind and out of sight; one talking or not-talking1 and the other listening, is the very antithesis of talk-in-interaction. Yet Freud himself tacitly revealed his awareness of the importance of the therapeutic relationship through his theory of the transference and counter-transference. But then Freud was born into a very different environment, where authoritarianism was rife and ‘experts’ knew best.
It is no good anyone trying to tell you how you look at things, or from where you look at things—no one will ever know except you.
—Bion, 1976, p. 245
In this chapter, I will flesh out my concept of “taking the transference” as introduced in the previous chapters, and I will outline a model for conceptualizing the process of establishing a “containing object” in the mind of the analysand throughout the course of analysis. The technical implications offered in this model derive mainly from concepts and notions put forward in three papers by Wilfred Bion and explicated by the present author: “A theory of thinking” (1962a/1988), in which Bion emphasizes what he calls “realistic projective identification,” which functions as an unconscious form of communication to and calls for understanding on the part of the analyst that is aimed toward the development of thoughts and an apparatus with which to think thought; “Notes on memory and desire” (1967/1988), in which he sets forth some “rules” for the analytic work that is centered on the “here and now” of the evolving therapeutic interaction; and his paper on “Evidence” (1976/1987), wherein he focuses on the “fact” of the individual analyst's emotional experience. I will attempt to demonstrate, through the presentation of detailed vignettes, some of the ways in which the analytic process may fail or succeed, highlighting the import of the analyst's capacity for “reverie,” “transformation,” and “publication”—all aspects of the containing function. In addition, she further expands upon Bion's work with a discussion of the essentials of “taking the transference” and differentiates between two main dimensions of interpretation, “projective” and “introjective.”
In the early days of the Internet, websites were about as jazzy as an IRS form. Youd see pages filled with an assortment of plain text, links, and more plain text. Over time, the Web matured, and web pages started to change as designers embraced the joys of color, pictures, and tacky clip-art. But when that excitement started to wear off, it was time for a new trickmultimedia.
is a catchall term for a variety of technologies and file types, all of which have dramatically different PC requirements and pose different web-design challenges. Multimedia includes everything from the irritating jingle that plays in the background of your best friends homepage to the wildly popular movie clip of a cat playing the piano. (Depressing fact: with over 10 million views, its unlikely youll ever create web page thats half as popular.)
In this Mini Missing Manual, youll consider how to use several types of multimedia. First, youll learn to play background music and sound effects. Then youll use Flash to put a real music player in your web page. Finally, youll see how to use YouTube to popularize your own movie clips, and take a shot at becoming the center of attention.
If we have fewer documents on the ancient history of central and eastern Sudan than on that of the western portion, it is principally because, at first, the Muslims and then the Europeans did not enter into relations with the centre and east of Negro Africa until long after having penetrated to the heart of the regions situated farther to the west. The Islamisation and exploration of the country extending to the east of the Niger are relatively very recent.
The numerous and very interesting people called the Hausa or
Afno, whose habitat is located between the Songhoy and Bornu, were at all times divided into several little States which seem to have been tributary to each other by turns, without any one of them having had a veritable preeminence over the others. There were and still are: Gober or the Kingdom of Tessawa, celebrated since the 16th century for its cotton fabrics and its leather footgear; the kingdom of Kano, whose capital was already populous at the time of Leo the African and well known for its imposing wall as well as for its commerce and industry; that of Katsena, renowned for its agricultural riches and its military power; that of Zegzeg or Zaria, of whose commercial prosperity has always been boasted, and of which it is claimed that formerly, thanks to the energy of a woman who was then its sovereign, it had extended its power over all the