Excel's interface stayed more or less constant from Excel 97 to Excel 2003. During that time, the program's developers added some new features and moved items around in the menu and toolbar system, but the basic structure remained the same. All that changed in Office 2007.
Excel 2007, Word 2007, and PowerPoint 2007 all use the new Microsoft Office Fluent interface design, commonly referred to as the Ribbon (Figure1-1).
Figure1-1.The Home tab of the new Excel 2007 user interface Ribbon.
Figure1-1 shows one tab from the new Ribbon user interface, which replaces the menu bars and toolbars (collectively known as command bars) found in Excel 2003. The Ribbon contains most, but not all, of the commands available in Excel 2007. The Microsoft Office user experience team created the new Ribbon interface in an effort to make it easier to discover the full range of built-in capabilities in Excel 2007. The Office product teams constantly receive requests for features that were already built into the programs, so they designed the new interface and applied it to the three most popular Office programs.
Remote data communication occurs at runtime. It does not reside
strictly in the client, but requires network connections to send and receive
data between the client and the server. Flex applications support a variety
of remote data communication techniques built on standards. There are three
basic categories of Flex application remote data communication:
This category consists of several overlapping techniques.
Utilizing the Flex framework HTTPService component or the Flash Player
API URLLoader class, you can send
and load uncompressed data such as text blocks, URL encoded data, and
XML packets. You can also send and receive SOAP packets using the Flex
framework WebService component. And
you can use a technology called Remoting to
send and receive AMF packets, which use a binary
protocol that is similar to SOAP (but is considerably smaller). Each
technique achieves the similar goal of sending requests and receiving
responses using HTTP or HTTPS. See http://www.jamesward.org/census for a comparison of
various methods for loading data at runtime over HTTP.
For most babies, a psychologically secure base from which to start exploring the world usually extends from their mother to their father and to other family members such as siblings and grandparents.
Babies quickly become aware of their father and differentiate him from their mother through distinguishing his physical characteristics. They can differentiate their father’s voice from the mother’s soon after birth and very quickly respond in a preferential way to his voice compared with that of other adults. Fathers usually quickly become important to their babies, who try to draw them in by gesture and vocalization. When the father of a 2-month-old girl went back to work, his daughter cried continuously, missing him.
Babies’ attachment relationships with their father cannot be predicted by the type of relationship with their mother but reflects the qualities that the father brings to the relationship. Fathers relate differently to their babies from the way their mothers do and differently again to a son or a daughter.
Life is all about making choices, and the time you spend in
Photoshop is no exception. Perhaps the biggest decision you'll make is
which part of an image to editafter all, your edits don't have to
affect the whole thing. Using a variety of
Photoshop tools, you can tell the program exactly which portion of the
image you want to tinker with, right down to the pixel, if you so
desire. This process is called making a
As you'll learn in this chapter, Photoshop has a bunch of tools
that you can use to create selections based on shape, color, and other
attributes. You can also draw selections by hand, although that requires
a bit of mouse prowess. True selection wisdom lies in learning which
selection tool to start with, how to use the tools together, and how to
fine-tune your selections quickly and efficiently. The following pages
will help you with all that and then some.
What's so great about selections, anyway? Lots. After you make a
selection, you can do all kinds of neat things with it,