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Medium 9781449370824

11. Classloading, Reflection, and Method Handles

Benjamin J Evans O'Reilly Media ePub

In Chapter 3, we met Java’s Class objects, as a way of representing a live type in a running Java process. In this chapter, we will build on this foundation to discuss how the Java environment loads and makes new types available. In the second half of the chapter, we will introduce Java’s introspection capabilities—both the original Reflection API and the newer Method Handles capabilities.

Class files, as we saw in Chapter 1, are  the result of compiling Java source files (or, potentially, other languages) into the intermediate form used by the JVM. These are binary files that are not designed to be human readable.

The runtime representation of these class files are the class objects that contain metadata, which represents the Java type that the class file was created from.

You can obtain a  class object in Java in several ways. The simplest is:

This returns the class object of the instance that it is called from. However, as we know from our survey of the public methods of Object, the getClass() method on Object is public, so we can also obtain the class of an arbitrary object o:

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Medium 9781449370923

2. The Basics

Jesse Cravens O'Reilly Media ePub

In this chapter, we’ll start out with the traditional “Hello, world!” then backtrack to see all the work Ember did for us under the covers. We’ll also take a look at what tools and software you’ll need to get started.

If you haven’t already, head to in your browser.  Click the big, orange—at the time of this writing—“Download the starter kit” link. While it’s downloading, bookmark the Guides link in the navigation bar at the top of the page. It may not be the absolute best place to start, but the guide linked there is an excellent second or third lesson on Ember. The Getting Started video on the first page, though, is definitely worth your time and makes as good a starting point as it does a refresher.

Once that starter kit has downloaded, take a look at the contents. You should see:

Go ahead and open up the index.html file—on any modern platform I can think of, this is as easy as double-clicking/tapping the file, no web server required—and ensure that your browser is able to render the page. If you’re having any trouble at this point, it’s likely that you have an unusual setting selected in your browser, such as disabling JavaScript. You should see something like Figure 2-1.

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Medium 9780596001957

8. Process Handling

Arnold Robbins O'Reilly Media ePub

The Unix operating system built its reputation on a small number of concepts, all of which are simple yet powerful. We’ve seen most of them by now: standard input/output, pipes, text-filtering utilities, the tree-structured filesystem, and so on. Unix also gained notoriety as the first small-computer[99] operating system to give each user control over more than one process. We call this capability user-controlled multitasking.

If Unix is the only operating system that you’re familiar with, you might be surprised to learn that several other major operating systems have been sadly lacking in this area. For example, Microsoft’s MS-DOS, for IBM PC compatibles, has no multitasking at all, let alone user-controlled multitasking. IBM’s own VM/CMS system for large mainframes handles multiple users but gives them only one process each. Compaq’s OpenVMS has user-controlled multitasking, but it is limited and difficult to use. The latest generation of small-computer operating systems, such as Apple’s Macintosh OS X (which is BSD-based) and Microsoft’s Windows (Windows 95 and later), finally include user-controlled multitasking at the operating system level.

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Medium 9781933952888

3 Shooting Techniques

Adrian Schulz Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

This chapter addresses the “how” of architectural photography, and discusses all the aspects of a photo that have to be considered during the shoot. A whole range of factors influence the look of an architectural photo, from things you can regulate (such as your own behavior), to things you cannot influence at all, like the weather and the ambient light. We will also show how different approaches to a shoot can produce very different results. You can portray a building in an immediate, authentic way, as a more diffuse representation that has little to do with the original purpose of the structure, or even as a completely independent piece of abstract art.

A successful architectural photo depends on a well-thought-out composition and a clear form of expression. If a building is to be the central element of an image, there should be no other major elements that compete for the viewer’s attention. If, however, an image is designed to portray the relationship between two buildings, the relationship has to be unequivocally illustrated to be effective. If you deliberately bend the rules of photography—as is often the case in artistic architectural shots—you have to make sure that this artifice is clear at first glance so that the viewer isn’t led to believe that the photographer simply wasn’t in control of the situation.

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Medium 9781780490328

CHAPTER THREE. Defile, defame, and devour

Joseph H. Berke Karnac Books ePub

Ihave been describing the hatred and destructiveness that exists between parents and children as well as siblings. And I have referred to the components of the malicious impulses that fuel the shadow side of ourselves: envy, greed, and jealousy. But what are these negative or angry constituents of the human condition? How do they arise? How can they be distinguished from each other? Are they always harmful? In order to address these points I shall begin this chapter by exploring the question: how do people experience envy, greed, and jealousy?

Historically, envy has long been considered the worst of these impulses. Because it is so painful to the mind, the envious person will go to almost any length to diminish, if not destroy, whatever or whomever may have aroused it. Thus, long ago, in The Parson’s Tale, Geoffrey Chaucer wrote: “It is certain that envy is the worst sin that is; for all other sins are against one virtue, whereas envy is against all virtue and against all goodness” (1982, p. 506).

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