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Medium 9780253011572

4 The First Step: Three Problems

Xiaobing Li Indiana University Press ePub

ON APRIL 22, 1951, CHINESE FORCES LAUNCHED THEIR LARGEST attack on the U.S. Eighth Army, across the 38th Parallel along a forty-mile front. Three CPVF army groups on the western front—including eleven armies and totaling 548,000 men from thirty-three infantry divisions, four field artillery divisions, two long-range artillery divisions, four anti-aircraft divisions, and one rocket division—would open the Spring Offensive.1 Peng Dehuai believed the 1951 Spring Offensive would be “the decisive battle” of the Korean War.2 The Chinese Spring Offensive became the largest offensive in PLA history. Eighteen newly arrived CPVF infantry divisions, at full strength and newly equipped with Soviet weapons, saw action for the first time. Two thousand artillery pieces were gathered on the western front, about six times as many as China had had in October 1950 when she entered the war.3 In addition, three NKPA corps, totaling 150,000 troops, also participated, and the joint CPVF-NKPA forces consisted of nearly 700,000 men battling against 340,000 UNF troops.4

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Medium 9780253014849

6 Cold War Complications: Soviet Patriotism, Historic Restoration, and the End of Blockade Commemorations

Steven M. Maddox Indiana University Press ePub


The postwar restoration of historic monuments and commemorations of the blockade took place against the background of growing international tensions and corresponding domestic anxieties. Whereas the Soviet Union had been an ally of the United States and Britain during the war, that relationship – fraught with tensions from the beginning – came to an end very soon after the defeat of Nazi Germany, and the former allies found themselves on opposing sides of the emerging Cold War. This new conflict was most immediately felt in the foreign policy of the Soviet Union, but it also had a tremendous impact on internal Soviet politics and everyday life.1 The developing confrontation with the West, in fact, manifested itself in the ideological dictates of the postwar Stalin regime.2 With the Cold War in full swing by 1947, Moscow was intent on imposing ideological conformity on the Soviet population, hoping to ensure loyalty and unity in the new battle with the West.

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Medium 9781783103423

II. Die Schulen und Bewegungen

Evgueny Kovtun Parkstone International ePub






Bereits 1921 hatte man im Museum für künstlerische Kultur mit Forschungsarbeiten begonnen. Malewitsch hielt die Vorträge Licht und Farbe und Ein neuer Beweis in der Kunst, Matjuschin den Vortrag Über den neuen Raum des Künstlers und Jermolajewa sprach über Das System des Kubismus. Es entstand die Idee, ein Forschungszentrum zur Bearbeitung neuer Probleme in der Kunst zu gründen. Am 9. Juni 1923 hielt der während der Belagerung Leningrads gestorbene Pawel Filonow auf einer in Petrograd abgehaltenen Museumskonferenz eine Rede, in der er im Namen einer „Gruppe linker Künstler“ den Vorschlag machte, das Museum in ein Forschungsinstitut für Kultur der modernen Kunst umzuwandeln.

Aber warum nahmen sich die Kunstschaffenden nun auch der Erforschung der Kunst an? Um eine Antwort auf diese Frage zu finden, müssen einige Momente verdeutlicht werden. Die traditionelle Kritik war gegenüber den von der neuen Kunst mitgebrachten Problemen macht und ratlos. Im Verlauf zweier Jahrzehnte hatte sie die Bewegung der russischen Avantgarde verspottet und so den Abstand zwischen Künstlern und Publikum vergrößert. Selbst die gebildetsten Kritiker, wie zum Beispiel der Maler Alexander Benois (1870 bis 1960), hemmten die Entwicklung der neuen künstlerischen Tendenzen.

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Medium 9781449324452

12. Collections

Steven Feuerstein O'Reilly Media ePub

A collection is a data structure that acts like a list or a single-dimensional array. Collections are, in fact, the closest you can get in the PL/SQL language to traditional arrays. This chapter will help you decide which of the three different types of collection (associative array, nested table, and VARRAY) best fits your program’s requirements and show you how to define and manipulate those structures.

Here are some of the ways I’ve found collections handy:

Most generally, I use collections to keep track of lists of data elements within my programs. Yes, you could use relational tables or global temporary tables (which would involve many context switches) or delimited strings, but collections are very efficient structures that can be manipulated with very clean, maintainable code.

You can use collections in conjunction with FORALL and BULK COLLECT to dramatically improve the performance of multirow SQL operations. These “bulk” operations are covered in detail in Chapter 21.

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Medium 9781782200598

7: “Class is in you”: An Exploration of Some Social Class Issues in Psychotherapeutic Work

Frank Lowe Karnac Books ePub

Joanna Ryan

Class has the potential to evoke extremely charged and difficult emotions; it can be a determining aspect of early experience; some internalized aspects of class experience can be unconscious; and yet there appears to be an absence of frameworks for thought and discussion within the psychotherapy profession. The innovative work of the last two decades on gender, race, and sexuality within the psychoanalytic field has not been matched by any equivalent attention to class, although Altman (1995) does provide an account of class dynamics in psychotherapeutic work from a relational psychoanalytic perspective. This chapter attempts to open up for discussion some concerns about class within psychoanalytic psychotherapy. It describes a small exploratory qualitative study in which experienced psychoanalytic psychotherapists from different class backgrounds were interviewed about aspects of their own biographical experiences of class, and their perceptions of class-related issues in their clinical work with differently classed patients and within the profession of psychotherapy, as they experienced this.

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