The sendmail program offers the -d command-line switch, which
allows you to observe sendmail's inner workings
in detail. Understanding this switch can help you solve complex
In earlier editions of this book, we attempted to document all the
debugging switches available, and provided a table showing which
were useful. For this edition, however, we will limit our detailed
description to V8.14 sendmail and only to those
debugging switches considered useful. This was done because
debugging switches show the inner workings of
sendmail, and, thus, those that are
other than "useful" can change dramatically from release to release
and are impossible to accurately represent in a static book.
The White Rabbit put on his spectacles. "Where shall I begin,
please your Majesty?" he asked.
"Begin at the beginning," the King said, very gravely, "and go on
till you come to the end: then stop."
It's important to know a little ARPAnet history to understand the Domain Name System (DNS). DNS was
developed to address particular problems on the ARPAnet, and the
Interneta descendant of the ARPAnetis still its main user.
If you've been using the Internet for years, you can probably skip
this chapter. If you haven't, we hope it'll give you enough background to
understand what motivated the development of DNS.
In the late 1960s, the U.S. Department of Defense's
Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA (later DARPA), began funding the
ARPAnet, an experimental wide area computer network
that connected important research organizations in the United States.
The original goal of the ARPAnet was to allow government contractors to
share expensive or scarce computing resources. From the beginning,
however, users of the ARPAnet also used the network for collaboration.
This collaboration ranged from sharing files and software and exchanging
electronic mailnow commonplaceto joint development and research using
shared remote computers.
“I want to know if you can see beauty, even when it's not pretty, every day, and if you can source your own life from its presence”
(Oriah Mountain Dreamer, 1999, p. 70)
Rationale for these explorations
Having worked as a general nurse in acute psychiatry, and in search of a deeper understanding of the human pain I witnessed, I began Registered Mental Nurse Training. MyChristian upbringing led me to look for the loving aspects of human nature and to want to seek to abolish what I then under-stood as “harmful and bad” behaviours. I had much to learn about human destructiveness.
Work in a large mental institution was a rude awakening for me, introducing me to the real, unsanitized world; a very different place to that which I had previously allowed myself to see through my “Christian rose-coloured glasses”. Experiences of bullying, physical and emotional neglect, depersonalization, and annihila- tion were just as evident as the caring, sometimes “blind” caring, as opposed to a considered and realistically thought out approach, which was also part of the psychiatric system. My interest in under-standing human aggression and destruction led me to work in aRegional Forensic Unit, with ill people who had offended against society to the extreme of committing rape, arson, manslaughter and murder. The appalling learning that struck me was that the most significant difference between staff and patients was simply the degree to which feelings and thoughts were acted out behav-iourally. The potential to destroy is inherent in being human, and as such is within each and every one of us. I believe that our pris-ons house people who are as much themselves victims as their victims.
Another country? migration, displacement, and internal dislocation in old age
I find myself remembering an advertising slogan which said: why live, when you can be buried for $10?
Freud wrote this in a letter to Marie Bonaparte in the last year of his life, after he had arrived as a refugee in England. Dislocation is part of the personal history of psychoanalysis—diaspora the experience of many of the first generation of analysts. In this chapter, I am going to think about the internal experience of dislocation consequent upon ageing itself—where psychically, if not geographically, one might find oneself in a foreign land. Rack (1982) describes dislocation occurring when the psychological cues that help an individual to function in society are withdrawn and replaced with new ones. Perhaps this highlights the common elements facing the migrant moving from one country to another, and the dis-location experienced in the crossing over, into old age, of those who stay at home—both may be faced with a new psychological, as well as social, context.