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|Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis Joan Lu, Fernando G. Tinetti, Jane You, George Jandieri, Gerald Schaefer, and Ashu M.G. Solo||CSREA Press|
|David M. Jordan||Indiana University Press||ePub|
THE FIGHTING AROUND SPOTSYLVANIA COURT HOUSE continued for another week after the day and night of the “Bloody Angle.” While it did not match the sustained carnage of May 12, the combat reflected Grant’s continuing belief that he could flank Lee out of his position and force a battle outside the rebel defensive works.
On May 13, the armies rested. The Confederates had pulled back in the early morning hours from the salient to a new line constructed about two miles in the rear, and the Union army spent the morning looking for them. Warren wrote to Emily that “I am yet very well,” and “yesterday was a fearful day of battle.” He sent Meade an unsolicited (and probably unappreciated) suggestion for crossing the Po again and perhaps flushing Lee out for a fight. Wainwright groused in his diary that “I have found no previous commander who did not shew me more consideration.” And Meade ordered a night movement by the Fifth Corps all the way around the army, to take up position on the left of the Ninth Corps and stage an assault at 4 A.M., “if practicable.”1See All Chapters
|Peter Fonagy||Karnac Books||ePub|
MERVYN M. PESKIN
Psychoanalysis is in a period of punctuated equilibrium, a time of change. Energetic subspecies have developed within the psychoanalytic niche, once dominated by classical ego psychology. Of even greater import, the allopatric evolution of psychoanalysis is undergoing transformation due to the encroachment of neighbouring scientific elaborations of the functioning of the mind. Noting that “it is inherent in the nature of science to be refreshed by discourse in other disciplines” (Cooper, 1997, p. 9), Cooper has persuasively argued (1990a; 1991a; 1997) that psychoanalysis cannot remain isolated from these elaborations and still maintain its scientific status. I agree, and read him to be arguing not only for the inspirational but for the constraining effect of neighbouring ideas - for the powerful heuristic guidance and, if necessary, reorientation brought about by conceptual integration, or at least conceptual compatibility, with neighbouring scientific endeavours. In this chapter, part of my ongoing dialogue with him, I will focus on the implications of the curious fact that moving toward conceptual integration leads us back into the theoretical wilderness of mirrors surrounding the innate and instinctual dispositions, which so many advances and revisions of psychoanalytic theory have recently led us out of. The issue of conceptual integration has grown both more realistic and more pressing in the recent past with the rise of cognitivism and the demise of behaviourism in scientific psychology. For cognitivism, unlike behaviourism, accepts that there are hidden causes of behaviour located in the mind/brain (Plotkin, 1998). A purview of the neighbouring fields of cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, and linguistics makes it clear that they are burgeoning with studies relevant to our interests. However, it also reveals that they are in the grip of a great debate. For the difficult, protracted acceptance of hidden causes was largely catalyzed by the arguments and evidence for innate complex mechanisms in the mind, notably the telling arguments and persuasive evidence for an innate language acquisition device (Chomsky, 1980). Studies in memory and perception have repeatedly demonstrated that output is richer and more organized than can be accounted for by input alone, implying the working of unob-servable causes. This “poverty of the stimulus” argument is a basic tenet of modern cognitivism (Fodor, 1983; Plotkin, 1998). It is not surprising that the acceptance of hidden causes has reactivated in psychology and in mind/ brain studies the great debate as to the roles of the innate and of early experience in human behaviour. Furthermore, acceptance of hidden causes has inevitably opened the way for ideas from the branch of biology particularly knowledgeable about innate mechanisms, that is, evolutionary biology, into the new, comprehensive elaboration of human psychology. Concomitantly, evolutionary theory itself has increasingly turned to a consideration of adaptedness and behaviour in our species. A new division of psychology, evolutionary psychology, incorporating evolutionary studies with cognitive psychology has emerged as a result.See All Chapters
|Daughters of St. Paul||Pauline Books and Media||ePub|
Thursday of the Second Week of Advent
“… yet the least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he.”
Advent is my favorite part of the liturgical year. I love the candlelight of the Advent wreath amid the darkening winter days and the sparkling Christmas lights that glow on homes and along busy streets. They remind me of the Father’s promise of redemption. God is doing something new among us. The darkness of sin and sadness will soon give way to the Light of the World.
Amid all these signs of expectation—amid the Christmas trees and snowflakes and crèche scenes—the Baptist emerges as a startling figure. As I prepare for Christmas by baking cookies and sending cards to loved ones, John the Baptist appears eating locusts and wearing camel hair, preaching a stern message of repentance for sins. Today, Jesus holds him up for us as a truly great man. John had great courage and conviction. He followed the call of God to the desert, to the palaces of kings, and finally to his death. You would have to be “great” indeed to live the life of fearless integrity and fiery passion for God that John lived.See All Chapters
|Meredith Mason Brown||Indiana University Press||ePub|
In a folder on the floor of my cluttered office is a sheaf of papers four inches thick. It looks like—and is—a record of legal proceedings: the court-martial and sentencing of an army officer and his efforts to get his sentence commuted. The army officer was my great-uncle Preston Brown, son of Colonel John Mason Brown and grandson of General William Preston.
Three days before Christmas 1900, during the Philippine War (1899–1902), Preston Brown, 28 years old, a first lieutenant in the United States Army, shot and killed an unarmed Filipino captive. Brown was charged with murder, convicted by court-martial of manslaughter, and sentenced to dismissal from the Army and five years of hard labor in a federal penitentiary. President Theodore Roosevelt commuted the sentence to a loss of a few months’ pay and a brief delay in promotion. Brown subsequently rose in the ranks, served with distinction in World War I, and retired in 1934 as a major general.
What happened in the Philippine matter? If Preston Brown was a killer, why was he pardoned? The incident raises timeless issues relating to counterinsurgent warfare, including the lack of clear rules as to the treatment of captives and the difficulty of distinguishing insurgents from indigenous civilians. Brown’s case also illustrates how family connections may skillfully be used in seeking commutation of such a sentence. In addition, the commutation reflected policy and legal decisions made by Roosevelt and by Secretary of War Elihu Root about the way America would conduct war as an occupying power.See All Chapters
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