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|Dr. Joe Schwarcz||ECW Press||ePub|
It all comes down to the fascinating little insect called dactylopius coccus.
When Hernn Cortz arrived in Mexico in 1518, he was intrigued by the beautifully colored Aztec fabrics he saw there. The source of the dye appeared to be seeds on the surface of certain cactus plants, but closer scrutiny revealed that they were not seeds at all. They were little bugs. Today, we know these insects as cochineal and the dye they yield as carmine. Montezuma, the Aztec king, was so fond of wearing robes made of carmine-dyed fabric that he imposed a tax upon his subjects to be paid in dried cochineal insects.
The pregnant female cochineal bug produces the brilliant red dye that became the first product ever exported from the New World to the Old. Soon, Europeans were dying their wool and silk with the insect extract. Maybe the most memorable use of cochineal was the bright scarlets for which the Gobelin tapestries of Paris became famous.
Producing the dye is not an easy business. The female insects, which feed on the red cactus berries and concentrate the dye in their bodies and in their larvae, are scraped off the cactus and dumped into hot water, where they instantly die. They are then dried in the sun and crushed into a powder, which is added to water or to a water-alcohol mixture. For fabrics, a mordant, such as alum, which binds the color to the material, is generally used. Carminic acid, the active coloring agent, is one of the safest existing dyes, and it is commonly used in foods and cosmetics. Candies, ice cream, beverages, yogurt, lipstick, and eye shadow can all be colored with cochineal.See All Chapters
|Elizabeth Jennings||Carcanet Press Ltd.|
And be forgotten by all but his secret thoughts.
Then, something taking his fingers: ‘Is it the wind?’
He thought and looked to see if the branches moved.
But nothing unusual stirred the trees, again
His fingers trembled, the hazel shook, he felt
Suddenly life in the twig as a woman feels
Abrupt and close the stir of the unborn child.
O and the afternoon was altered then;
Power from all quarters flung at him, silence broke
And deft but uneasy far in the back of his mind
A word like water shuddered, streams gushed and fountains
Rose as the hazel leapt from his mastered hand.
Right in the middle of the storm it was.
So many winds were blowing none could tell
Which was the fiercest or if trees that bent
So smoothly to each impulse had been waiting
All of their growing-time for just that impulse
To prove how pliable they were. Beneath,
Beasts fled away through fern, and stiffest grasses,
Which bent like fluid things, made tidal motion.
These who had never met before but in
Calmest surroundings, found all shadows mingling;See All Chapters
|James Avery||O'Reilly Media|
Testing Your Software
Developer-level testing is critical to the development lifecycle; it catches potential bugs at the earliest moment. A large number of studies show a rapid escalation in the cost of fixing issues as time in a project progresses. Catch the bugs early, save big amounts of money; catch the bugs late, lose big amounts of money (and sleep) as you try to rework potentially significant amounts of your system.
In the not-too-distant past, software testing was mostly handled in one of the following ways:
• Developers used debuggers to step through the application (which took way too much time and often wasn’t done at all).
• Developers used the application’s GUI and stepped through a bit of functionality to confirm that everything appeared to be working correctly.
• Developers relied on scripts or applications to test the application’s user interface.
These user-interface tests were often extremely brittle because they were very tightly coupled to the functionality driving the interface. That meant a small change in the underlying code often drove large changes in the automation—thereby eliminating any efficiency gained from that automation.See All Chapters
|Peter Bell||O'Reilly Media||ePub|
In this chapter we’ll start by introducing Git and GitHub. What are they, what is the difference between them, and why would you want to use them? We’ll then introduce some other common terms that you’ll often hear mentioned when people are discussing GitHub. That way you’ll be able to understand and participate in discussions about your projects more easily.
Git is a version control system. A version control system is a piece of software designed to keep track of the changes made to files over time. More specifically, Git is a distributed version control system, which means that everyone working with a project in Git has a copy of the full history of the project, not just the current state of the files.
GitHub is a website where you can upload a copy of your Git repository. It allows you to collaborate much more easily with other people on a project. It does that by providing a centralized location to share the repository, a web-based interface to view it, and features like forking, pull requests, issues, and wikis, which allow you to specify, discuss, and review changes with your team more effectively.See All Chapters
|SPHR, Kathryn McKee||Berrett-Koehler Publishers||ePub|
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