When you need to get some work done with a computer, it's best to
use a tool that's appropriate to the job at hand. You don't use a text
editor to balance your checkbook or a calculator to write a proposal. So
too, different programming languages meet different needs when it comes
time to get some computer-related task done.
Shell scripts are used most often for system administration
tasks, or for combining existing programs to accomplish some small,
specific job. Once you've figured out how to get the job done, you can
bundle up the commands into a separate program, or
script, which you can then run directly. What's
more, if it's useful, other people can make use of the program, treating
it as a black box, a program that gets a job
done, without their having to know how it does
In this chapter we'll make a brief comparison between different
kinds of programming languages, and then get started writing some simple
In a conversation last year, Justin Sheehy, CTO of Basho, described NoSQL as a movement, rather than a technology. This description immediately felt right; Ive never been comfortable talking about NoSQL, which when taken literally, extends from the minimalist Berkeley DB (commercialized as Sleepycat, now owned by Oracle) to the big iron HBase, with detours into software as fundamentally different as Neo4J (a graph database) and FluidDB (which defies description).
But what does it mean to say that NoSQL is a movement rather than a technology? We certainly dont see picketers outside Oracles headquarters. Justin said succinctly that NoSQL is a movement for choice in database architecture. There is no single overarching technical theme; a single technology would belie the principles of the movement.
Think of the last 15 years of software development. Weve gotten very good at building large, database-backed applications. Many of them are web applications, but even more of them arent. Software architect is a valid job description; its a position to which many aspire. But what do software architects do? They specify the high level design of applications: the front end, the APIs, the middleware, the business logic--the back end? Well, maybe not.
When you want to make a big difference with one simple change to
your photo, you can't beat converting it from color to black and white.
The Ansel Adams approach doesn't just evoke nostalgia; it puts the focus
back on the subject in a powerful way. Going grayscale also lets you
salvage an image that you can't color-correct, or beautify a subject
whose teeth need heavy-duty whitening or whose skin needs fixing. Those
problems all but disappear when you enter the realm of black and
But does that mean you should set your digital camera to shoot in
black and white? Heck, no! It's much better to
photograph in color and then drain the color in Photoshop. That way, you
have a truckload of artistic options like bringing back just a touch of
the original color for a partial-color effect. And, speaking of color,
Photoshop has several tools that let you change the color of anything,
whether it's a car or the hair on your head. You can also breathe new
life into vintage photographs by adding a dash of color.
“Tell Wes to be a good man. And keep out of trouble.”
Sheriff Thomas Bell to Richard M. Glover, April 14, 1894
ne of the first people Hardin intended to meet in Gonzales was
Richard M. Glover. They could hardly be called old friends, as
Glover was still a boy when Hardin and the Clements brothers had been in Gonzales, driving cattle and feuding with the Sutton forces.
Glover’s older brother Edward had been with the Clements family and perhaps Richard developed an admiration for Hardin during those years.
A decade younger than Hardin, he now was a highly respected citizen of
Gonzales County. Born in 1862, his father had been killed on a battlefield in Mississippi. In 1887, “Dick” as he was popularly known, married
Margaret A. “Maggie” Colley of Smiley Lake, Gonzales County. He ran for sheriff and on November 4, 1890 was elected; he was re-elected on
November 8, 1892.1
In a letter to Hardin, Glover apologized for not meeting Hardin but explained that his sheriff’s duties, as they did so often, prevented him from so doing. Hardin had already visited an “Aunt Elvira” and Glover assured John Wesley that the visit “did her a wonderful lot of good.”
If she only knew . . . that I like to make stuff during science class, she would let us make rockets like Mrs. Bagen’s class. Instead, we read about rockets from a book. . . . If she only knew . . . that I need to talk if I’m going to learn, she wouldn’t send me to the principal’s office so much. She says my talking is disruptive in the classroom. She’s the only person talking. In my opinion, that’s disruptive.
—Jeff Gray and Heather Thomas, If She Only Knew Me
Most people can learn most things in more than one way. However, while one approach may make the process of learning seem more natural or accessible to a particular learner, another approach may confound the process. Although individual preferences for learning are probably somewhat fluid, depending on the circumstances or context, a mismatch between how a student learns best in a particular context and how the teacher expects the student to learn can greatly impede the learning process.
Learning profile is an umbrella term that encompasses four aspects of how individuals learn, how they process what they need to learn, or how they think about, remember, and prefer to use what they learn (Tomlinson, 1999, 2001). In other words, learning profile relates to how people “come at” learning. Research has established that the four overlapping areas encompassed by learning profile are learning styles, intelligence preferences, culture, and gender (Tomlinson et al., 2003).