Bridging neurobiology, cognitive science and psychoanalysis: Recent contributions to theories of therapeutic action
Sandra G. Hershberg, M.D.
Chapters twelve, thirteen, fourteen and fifteen explore the ways in which knowledge and research about the implicit and explicit domains, in the context of relational experience, reconfigures concepts of memory, learning and a sense of self in the developing brain and, furthermore, contributes to a theory of mind. These findings, particularly in the areas of attachment, infant observation, and neuroscience, emphasize the primacy of relational experience and inform our notions of how psychoanalysis leads to change.
In an effort to achieve a sense of balance between coherence and chaos, Schore, Bucci, Chefetz, and Fosshage, have provided footholds of clarity and understanding as we consider various aspects of the implicit and explicit domains. Schore (1994, 2003a, 2003b, 2010), in his painstaking and creative endeavour to integrate the implicit self, psychoanalysis and neuroscience, focuses on the questions: Where in the brain do we locate the implicit self, that aspect of ourselves which is responsive to non-verbal expressions of emotions, the markers of attachment and emotional connection, and the seat of affect regulation, originally configured between infant and car-egiver? What are the implications of these findings, from his perspective, for the therapeutic process?
This month Kevin Costner demonstrates his formidable swing as an ageing golf pro in Tin Cup, a movie directed and co-scripted by
Ron Shelton, onetime minor league baseball player. Next month in the London Film Festival, the poet, martial artist and Manchester
United hero Eric Cantona makes a creditable movie debut as a womanising star three-quarter for Condom Rugby Club in Le
Bonheur est dans le pré; Vinnie Jones is soon to be seen as a debt collector in Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels; and the French tennis star Yannick Noah will make his film debut next year in
Hannibal Tartarin’s Le Petit fils.
There’s nothing odd here. For a century there has been a symbiotic relationship between the cinema and professional sport. The first people to be recognised on film and to be paid for their appearance were boxers in the 1890s, and there have been more movies about boxing than any other sport. From Chaplin, Keaton and
Harold Lloyd onwards, virtually every screen comedian has entered the ring, and at every major world championship bout movie stars have had ringside seats. Real-life boxers have been courted by the movies. Ex-champions Tami Mauriello and Tony Galento lend authentic muscle to the crooked union organiser Johnny Friendly in On the Waterfront; Jake La Motta tends the bar where Paul
And that brings us to the big question: who is going to support EPUB
3 and when? Because its community driven, and because it has a very large
community, people have already begun experimenting, even though the
specification isnt yet a formal recommendation. Apple iBooks, for
example, already has early support for the overlays feature of EPUB 3, and
read-along childrens books are already available.
With EPUB 3 now in the final stages of the approval process, it will
receive recommendation status in fall 2011. In that light, its not a
stretch to predict that EPUB 3 reading systems will be on shelvesand
upgrades to your current systems availableby early 2012 (if not sooner).
Many industry heavyweightslike Apple, Sony, Google and Adobehave been
involved in the specification development, and all are expected to begin
working on implementations once the finished specification is available to
The specification has also been crafted with backward compatibility
of content in mind. Duplicating content for EPUB 2 and 3 readers is not
anything anyone wants to do, so to that end, EPUB 3 has maintained minimal
compatibility with EPUB 2 reading systems to ensure that anyone using an
older system to read a new book is still (reasonably) able to do so.
Thats not to suggest that all EPUB 3s will render seamlessly on older
readers (in particular if you are taking heavy advantage of all the new
features EPUB 3 has to offer), but if your EPUB 3 is a simple novelwith
just chapters and paragraphs and using basic CSS stylingit should render
equally well on an EPUB 2 reader as on a