Przedstawiamy tutaj zbir problemw z dziedziny geometrii obliczeniowej. Wieloma z nich matematycy zajmowali si ju przed kilkoma wiekami. Od lat siedemdziesitych XX w. za geometri obliczeniow uwaa si systematyczne badania algorytmw geometrycznych i struktur danych, ktre umoliwiaj ich efektywne wykonywanie. Algorytmy te rozwizuj wiele problemw z rzeczywistego wiata; niektre z nich zostan tutaj zaprezentowane. Zbyt czsto struktury danych i algorytmy przedstawiane w tym rozdziale uwaa si za zbyt zaawansowane, aby wcza je do programw nauczania niszych lat. Zawodowcy trudnicy si pisaniem programw z powodzeniem mog si jednak nauczy tych struktur i zasad dziaania algorytmw, aby stosowa je w trudnych problemach, z ktrymi przychodzi im si zmierzy.
W skad problemu geometrii obliczeniowej wchodz obiekty geometryczne, takie jak punkty, proste i wielokty. Mwic cilej, problem geometrii obliczeniowej jest okrelony przez (a) typ danych wejciowych, ktre maj by przetwarzane, (b) obliczenia do wykonania i (c) to, czy zadanie jest statyczne, czy dynamiczne. Te klasyfikacje s pomocne w identyfikowaniu metod, ktre mog poprawi sprawno caych rodzin pokrewnych problemw.
Every interview that I conducted with any of the early psy choanalysts always succeeded in teaching me something special. While many of those that I saw during my most intense fieldwork during the mid-1960s were either relatively obscure then or have been generally forgotten by now, Donald Winnicott remains an outstanding exception to any such generalization. For, rather to my amazement, his stature has continued to grow, so that there is now not only a large bust of him at the headquarters of the British Psycho-Analytical Society, but his writings have been translated into many languages. With the passage of time, his reputation has eclipsed that of many who were once considered leading representatives of the profession.
It is true that at the time I proposed to see Winnicott in September of 1965, he had already been recommended to me by someone as reliably intellectual as Dr Charles Rycroft as “the genius of British analysis”. Rycroft went through Winnicott’s (1958a) book Collected Papers: Through Paediatrics to Psycho-Analysis in order to help tutor me about which articles I ought to read first.
We are still in the process of discovering what projective identification “means,” not that Mrs. Klein meant all that in 1946, consciously or otherwise.
Donald Meltzer, 1978, p. 39
In this chapter, I shall offer some reflections on the process of projective identification as a form of intersubjective thirdness. In particular, I shall describe the interplay of mutual subjugation and mutual recognition that I view as fundamental to this psychological-interpersonal event.
In Klein’s (1946, 1955) work, projective identification was only implicitly a psychological-interpersonal concept. However, the concept as it has been developed by Bion (1952, 1962a) and H. Rosenfeld (1952, 1971, 1987), and further enriched by Grotstein (1981), Joseph (1987), Kernberg (1987), Meltzer (1966), Ogden (1979), O’Shaughnessy (1983), Segal (1981), and others, has taken on an increasingly complex set of intersubjective meanings and clinical applications. The understanding of projective identification that I shall propose is founded on a conception of psychoanalysis as a process in which a variety of forms of intersubjective “thirdness” are generated that stand in dialectical tension with the analyst and analysand as separate psychological entities. In projective identification, a distinctive form of analytic thirdness is generated in the dialectic of subjectivity and intersubjectivity that I shall refer to as “the subjugating third,” since this form of intersubjectivity has the effect of subsuming within it (to a very large degree) the individual subjectivities of the participants.
Dr. Merrill Garnett is a research chemist and dentist. He is head of the Garnett McKeen Laboratories in Islip and Bohemia, New York. For the past forty years, Dr. Garnett has researched molecular and cellular biology in order to find effective, nontoxic cancer treatments.
Dr. Garnett began with the research of German scientist Otto Warburg, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery that cancerous tumors are oxygen deficient and rely upon anaerobic metabolism for energy production. Anaerobic (without oxygen) metabolism produces less energy per unit of fuel, which means decreased energy efficiency in tumor cells. Although these cells are less efficient, this shift is believed to be a form of cellular energy conservation, because less energy is produced.
Dr. Garnett looked at this research and asked: If changes in gene expression alter cellular metabolism in this way, could this be used to somehow target cancerous cells for destruction while leaving healthy cells (those that still utilize primarily aerobic metabolism) alone? Could this decreased energy production be a result of natural selection, where mutant cells that are better able to conserve energy are the ones that survive and multiply? His research focused on ways to identify the enzyme and energy changes that cause the shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, and finding ways to prevent it. Dr. Garnett sought to find a way to utilize the anaerobic energy default mechanism used by cancer cells to bring about their demise.
If you leave out an essential ingredient (say, baking soda) when making a cake, you cant just toss it in after the cake comes out ofthe oven. You have to start over from scratch. Its not the end ofthe world, but its wasted time and effort. The same thing applies to your backups. Of course you can change your mind after the factabout what data you back up, in which manner, and to which destinationsbut certain changes can be agonizing in that they require you to restart from the very beginning a backup that may take days or even weeks. I think wed all prefer to avoid that extra hassle. And if such a change should truly become necessary, we should at least understand clearly the benefits and consequences.
In this chapter, I help you make wise decisions from the start about where to back up your data, which data to select, how to encrypt it, and other factors that will make your ongoing backups that much smoother and more understandable.
The two most important decisions to make are what data to back up and where to store it. They go hand in hand, and you shouldnt decide firmly about either without considering the other. Since CrashPlans design emphasizes flexibility in choosing destinations and downplays the need to select which data to back up, well start with where you should store your data.