(a) The underlying psychic conflict and its power of selecting appropriate psychical material. b) Importance of this law of condensation in all mental activity. c) The value of elaboration of the condensation.
The different methods of displacement with illustrative material.
(a) Typical and individual symbols.
(4) Symbols in the service of hate and love impulses.
Play, dreams and drama. Dreams the attempt within the psyche to project and master anxiety.
5. SECONDARY ELABORATION.
THE transformation of latent into manifest dream content is brought about by specific mechanisms. Freud names them condensation, displacement, dramatization, symbolization and secondary elaboration. We will now consider each mechanism in further detail.
A dream will not only evoke associations to present-day events and emotions but will also recall events, phantasies and emotions belonging to differing times and circumstances in the past. Here is a simple example: A man dreamt that he saw a lightship that had a walrus as a figure-head. The associations evoked by the dream brought first of all to mind an experience of a rough journey by sea that he had made the preceding week-end. On that voyage he had seen actual lightships and lifebuoys. These seen during storm had given a fantastic impression as the rough tides swept over them. They were like heads and the water poured out of their nostrils. The perils of navigation in a stretch of water where sand-banks were numerous were the first thoughts of the patient. He had good reason to be glad during that rough passage that he knew the navigation map by heart, since he was the captain of the vessel.
Ever since mobile phones started to
incorporate standalone GPS receivers, developers have foreseen a new era
of location-based applications. Location awareness enables a new
generation of mobile applications. If your application is looking up
restaurants, its clearly advantageous if you can restrict your search
to the area around you. Its even better if you can see a map of the
restaurants locations, and perhaps be able to look up driving or walking directions. If
youre looking for a temporary job, as in the MJAndroid application highlighted in Using the Database API: MJAndroid, its definitely a benefit to be able
to graphically view job opportunities on a map.
Navigation is really just the first generation of location-based services (LBS). Applications that enable
users either to opt in to allow sharing of their location with friends,
such as Google Latitude, or to attach importance to geographic sites,
such as Foursquare, have begun to arrive in a big way. The world of LBS
is really taking off, and as well see, Googles Android provides
powerful features that greatly simplify development of this type of
In the early days of the Internet, websites were about as jazzy as an IRS form. Youd see pages filled with an assortment of plain text, links, and more plain text. Over time, the Web matured, and web pages started to change as designers embraced the joys of color, pictures, and tacky clip-art. But when that excitement started to wear off, it was time for a new trickmultimedia.
Multimedia is a catchall term for a variety of technologies and file types, all of which have dramatically different computer requirements and pose different web design challenges. Multimedia includes everything from the irritating jingle that plays in the background of your best friends home page to the wildly popular video clip of a cat playing the piano. (Depressing fact: That cat has over 20 million views, youre unlikely to ever create a web page thats half as popular.)
In this chapter, youll consider how to use several types of multimedia. First, youll learn to play background music and put a snazzy MP3 player on a web page. Then youll embed videofirst using ordinary HTML, and then using the new, but not-quite-ready <video> element in HTML5. Finally, youll see how you can avoid some serious headaches by hosting your video files on YouTube.
The word "policy" makes many people flinch because it
suggests impenetrable documents put together by unknowledgeable
committees, which are then promptly ignored by everyone involved (except
when they make a good excuse or weapon). That's not the kind of policy
we're discussing in this chapter.
The policy we're talking about here is like a nation's foreign
policy. It might be discussed in documents of varying amounts of
legibility but its primary purpose is to establish a direction, a
theory of what you're trying to achieve. People sometimes confuse the
words "policy", "strategy", and "tactics". A policy
is what determines what wars you're going to fight and why. A
strategy is the plan for carrying out the war. A
tactic is a method for carrying out a strategy.
Presidents determine policy; generals determine strategies; and anybody
down to a foot soldier might determine a tactic.
Most of this book is about tactics. The tactics involved in
building a firewall, the nitty-gritty details of what needs to be done
here, are complex and intricate. However, no matter how good your
tactics are, if your strategy and policy are bad, you can't succeed. In
the 1800s, an American named William Walker set out to conquer Nicaragua
for the United States. His strategy and tactics were, if not impeccable,
certainly successful: he conquered Nicaragua. Unfortunately, there was a
fatal flaw in his plan. The United States did not at the time want
Nicaragua, and when he announced that he had conquered it, the U.S.
government was completely uninterested in doing anything about it.
Walker ended up ruling Nicaragua very briefly before he was killed in a
popular uprising. This was the result of getting the strategy and the
tactics right but completely botching the policy.