Keywords: Cumulative Distribution Function, Distance, Kernel, Similarity
Similarity and dissimilarity measures such as kernels and distances are key components of classification and clustering algorithms. We propose a novel technique to construct distances and kernel functions between probability distributions based on cumulative distribution functions. The proposed distance measures incorporate global discriminating information and can be computed efficiently.
The kernel is a similarity measure that is the key component of support vector machine () and other machine learning techniques. More generally, a distance
When networking protocols work only with a single kind of physical
network, there is no need to identify the network interface to the
software. The software knows what the interface must
be; no configuration issues are left for the administrator. However, one
important strength of TCP/IP is its flexible use of different physical
networks. This flexibility adds complexity to the system administrators
task, because you must tell TCP/IP which interfaces to use, and you must
define the characteristics of each interface.
Because TCP/IP is independent of the underlying physical network, IP
addresses are implemented in the network softwarenot in the network
hardware. Unlike Ethernet addresses, which are determined by the Ethernet
hardware, the system administrator assigns an IP address to each network
In this chapter, we use the ifconfig (interface configure) command to
identify the network interface to TCP/IP and to assign the IP address,
subnet mask, and broadcast address to the interface. We also configure a
network interface to run Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), which is the
standard Network Access Layer protocol used to run TCP/IP over modem
In the past, we were used to making phone calls from home or from the office. Public pay phones allowed us to make phone calls while on the road. Today, the use of mobile phones is common and we make phone calls from almost anywhere and in any life situation. The use of notebook computers, wireless networks, and portable devices is expanding, and we can imagine having smart devices and using them from wherever we are. If these devices are to use IP as a transport protocol, we need Mobile IP to make this work. We expect our device to remain connected when we move around and change our point of attachment to the network, just as we are used to roaming from one cell to the next with our mobile phones today. For example, suppose you have a PDA with an 802.11 (wireless) interface and a General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) interface. In your hotel room, you are connected to the network through your wireless interface; when you leave your room and go out to the street, you switch automatically to GPRS without losing your connection. All the applications running on your PDA stay up. Isn't this cool? This section about Mobile IP explores the mechanisms needed and shows how IPv6 is ready for this challenge.
In legal parlance, MAIN would be called a closely held corporation; roughly 5 percent of its two thousand employees owned the company. These were referred to as partners or associates, and their position was coveted. Not only did the partners have power over everyone else, but also they made the big bucks. Discretion was their hallmark; they dealt with heads of state and other chief executive officers who expect their consultants, like their attorneys and psychotherapists, to honor a strict code of absolute confidentiality. Talking with the press was taboo. It simply was not tolerated. As a consequence, hardly anyone outside MAIN had ever heard of us, although many were familiar with our competitors, such as Arthur D. Little, Stone & Webster, Brown & Root, Halliburton, and Bechtel.
I use the term competitors loosely, because in fact MAIN was in a league by itself. The majority of our professional staff was engineers, yet we owned no equipment and never constructed so much as a storage shed. Many MAINers were ex-military; however, we did not contract with the Department of Defense or with any of the military services. Our stock-in-trade was something so different from the norm that during my first months there even I could not figure out what we did. I knew only that my first real assignment would be in Indonesia, and that I would be part of an eleven-man team sent to create a master energy plan for the island of Java.
Optymalizacja wspczynnika konwersji (ang. Conversion Rate Optimization CRO) to sztuka i nauka dotyczca poprawy skutecznoci przekonywania odwiedzajcych, aby podjli dziaania, ktre przynosz nam korzyci. Moe to by dokonanie zakupu, wpacenie datku lub zobowizanie si do podjcia okrelonych pozytywnych dziaa w przyszoci.
W optymalizacji CRO wykorzystuje si szereg technik obejmujcych, midzy innymi, pisanie perswazyjnego tekstu reklamy oraz korzystanie z projektw bazujcych na wiarygodnoci. Dziki planowaniu, projektowaniu i optymalizacji serwisu WWW z wykorzystaniem technik perswazji zyskujemy pewnos, e stanie si on bardziej skutecznym instrumentem sprzeday. Serwis WWW zoptymalizowany pod ktem konwersji mona porwna do skutecznego cyfrowego sprzedawcy, ktry pracuje 24 godziny na dob przez 7 dni w tygodniu i 365 dni w roku (bez pensji i prowizji), kwalifikujc potencjalnych klientw, tworzc raporty, a nawet finalizujc transakcje.
O tym, jak wana jest optymalizacja CRO, moemy si przekona, jeli zwrcimy uwag na nisk wydajno niezoptymalizowanych internetowych serwisw e-commerce. rednie wspczynniki konwersji tych serwisw wahaj si w zakresie od 2,5% do 3,1%. Chocia w kadym przypadku liczby mog by rne, mona si spodziewa, e dobrze przeprowadzona optymalizacja jest w stanie podnie wspczynniki konwersji o 50 do 200%, a nawet wicej. Na przykad, w Rozdzia4. omawialimy przypadek, w ktrym wzrost wynis ponad 600%.