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Medium 9781449372866

2. The Four Tenets of UX Strategy

Jaime Levy O'Reilly Media ePub

“In war, let your great object be victory, not lengthy campaigns.”


A STELLAR UX STRATEGY IS A MEANS TO ACHIEVING DISRUPTION IN the marketplace through mental-model innovation. And to keep me from forgetting this, I have the sticker shown in Figure 2-1 on my laptop lid.

Because what’s the point in spending time and energy crafting a digital product that isn’t unique? Or, at the very least, is a much better alternative to current solutions found in the online marketplace?

To achieve that disruption, we need a framework in which to connect all the dots that will build a cohesive UX strategy. In this chapter, I’m going to break down the most important tenets that you need to understand in order to successfully implement the tools and techniques in this book. Think of it as a primer to get you and your team thinking like a UX strategist.

In the digital world, strategy usually begins in the discovery phase. This is when teams dig deep into research to reveal key information about the product they want to build. I’ve always liked to think of the discovery phase as similar to the pretrial discovery process used by attorneys in the United States. To avoid a “trial by ambush,” lawyers can request to see the evidence of the opposing counsel in order to prepare sufficient counter-evidence. In this way, the attorneys try to avoid surprises, and you, as a product maker, should also want to strategically do just that.

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Medium 9780253347978

5. Ivan Prepares for Marriage

Olga Semyonova Tian-Shanskaia Indiana University Press ePub

Another realm in which women played a central role was the arrangement of marriages. In theory, the timing of marriage, the choice of partners, and the content of the ceremony and accompanying celebrations were almost entirely in the hands of women. This amounted to power over the establishment of kinship bonds, an altogether critical function in peasant society, one on which the survival of the family could ultimately depend. Semyonova states this view of things at the start of this chapter, but the stories she tells later show young men proposing to women; the role of the women of the young man’s household is not presented. At the end of the chapter, I have inserted unpublished descriptions of four actual marriages taken from Semyonova’s field notes. While women clearly played a directing role in the last two cases, their influence in the first two instances is less obviously determining.

Semyonova dwells on the age of marriage partners and suggests that Russian ideas about the appropriate age difference between them may reflect a mechanism of natural selection. These comments should be seen in the context of the powerful influence of Darwinian thought at the time Semyonova was growing up and writing. Scholars now understand such behavior as a product of an interaction of economy and culture. In this connection, it is interesting to note that Russian practices shared one key element with the rather unusual patterns of northwestern Europe (where people tended to marry late, the age gaps between bride and groom were small, and many people never married) and had other elements in common with the customs of southern Europe and much of Asia (where people married early, grooms were significantly older than brides, and nearly everyone married). In peasant Russia, marriage occurred early and was virtually universal, but as in western Europe, Russian couples were very close in age; often the bride was older than her groom.

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Medium 9781855750838

8. Dreams and dreaming

Kenneth Lambert Karnac Books ePub

No book on analysis, repair and individuation can avoid a consideration of the way in which analysts can use their patients’ communication to them of their dreams and dreaming to increase their understanding of the dynamic process involved. They will be told dreams whether they ask for them or not, although the patients’ motives for telling them are likely to be extremely varied. Indeed, considerable advances in the understanding of dreaming and the use made of it in their patients’ communications are being made by analysts of all schools. Furthermore, outside the field of analysis, light is being shed by the sleep laboratory experimenters and by brain neurophysiologists on the nature and purpose of dreams and their possible function in the maintenance of psychological health, whether interpreted or not.

This chapter will sketch out changes in psychoanalytic thought about dreams and then try to bring out whatever seems relevant to analysts from the two sets of experimenters already mentioned. It will then describe the contribution of classical analytical psychology to the subject and show how more recent analytical psychology has modified and reslanted its earlier views and reconsidered ways of making use of dreams and dreaming in the analytical interpretation of their patients’ situation. Two case-histories are presented to illustrate these new developments.

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Medium 9788324662760


Albahari, Joseph Helion ePub

Delegat to cznik pomidzy wywoujcym metod a docelow metod wywoania w czasie wykonania. Delegat ma dwa aspekty: typ i instancj. Typ delegatu definiuje protok obowizujcy wywoujcego i wywoywanego, okrelajc list typw parametrw oraz typ wartoci zwracanej. Z kolei instancja delegatu to obiekt odnoszcy si do jednej bd wielu metod docelowych zgodnych z protokoem okrelanym przez typ delegatu.

Instancja delegatu wystpuje w dosownej roli delegata wobec wywoujcego: wywoujcy wywouje delegat, a potem tene delegat wywouje metod docelow. Poziom porednioci w postaci delegacji pozwala na wyeliminowanie sprzgu pomidzy wywoujcym a docelow metod wywoania.

Deklaracja typu delegatu jest poprzedzana sowem kluczowym delegate, ale poza tym szczegem odpowiada deklaracji metody (abstrakcyjnej). Oto przykad:

Aby utworzy instancj delegatu, naleaoby przypisa metod do zmiennej delegatu:

Wywoanie delegatu wyglda zupenie jak wywoanie metody (bo te jedynym zadaniem delegatu jest wprowadzenie porednioci w wywoaniu metody):

Instrukcja Transformer t = Square to skrt od:

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Medium 9781449333607

3. Simple Callbacks


Of all the differences between PHP and JavaScript, heres the most difficult: PHP is, at its heart, a sequential language, whereas JavaScript is an event-driven one.

Being sequential or event-driven is essentially an assumption that is built into a language. Languages do not develop in a vacuum. With both PHP and JavaScript, each language was developed in a hurry, with a particular purpose in mind, and deployed to users within months of its creation.

Rasmus Lerdorf invented PHP in 1994 as a replacement for CGI scripts. CGI scripts were usually C (or C++) programs that executed when a browser requested a specific URL and the output from the program was sent back as a web page. These C programs were single threaded and ran from beginning to end in a step-by-step fashion. Lerdorf developed PHP as a substitute. When a browser requested a specific URL, instead of running a C program, the PHP script (page) would be quickly compiled and run, and the output from the script would be sent back as a web page. Since PHP was a drop-in substitute for single-threaded C programs, PHP naturally adopted the single-threaded approach.

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