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Medium 9780890517888

18. How Big Is the Universe?

Ken Ham Master Books ePub

Chapter 18

How Big Is the Universe?

Dr. Danny R. Faulkner


The universe appears to be very large billions of light years across. Since this is far larger than a few thousand light years, people frequently ask how we can see objects this far away if the universe is only thousands of years old, as the Bible seems to imply. This is a very good question so good that we have given this question a name: the light travel time problem. There are a number of proposed solutions to this problem, but I will not discuss those here.1 Instead, I will address the question of whether the universe really is as big as is often claimed. The short answer is, yes, the universe most certainly is that large. To explain this conclusion, I will describe some of the methods astronomers use to measure distances of astronomical bodies.


I emphasize that there are three realms of astronomical distances: those within the solar system, those within the galaxy, and those of objects outside of our galaxy. The techniques used in these realms are different, and there is little overlap between the techniques used in those realms. The first distance measurements in astronomy were within the solar system, and they were done by geometric means as planets orbited the sun. This largely was replaced by more accurate radar measurements in the latter half of the 20th century. I will not discuss solar system distances, for the light travel times involved here amount to mere hours at most, and thus are not a problem for recent creation. The sun and all the stars that we can see are members of the Milky Way galaxy, a vast collection of more than 100 billion stars spanning nearly 100,000 light years. The term stellar distance normally refers to measuring distances of stars within the galaxy. The first stellar distance measurement was in 1838. There are billions of many other galaxies, each of them being millions or even billions of light years away. We say that the distances of other galaxies are extra-galactic. The first extra-galactic distance measurement was in 1924.

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Medium 9781565927568

5. Temporal Data

Ales Spetic O'Reilly Media ePub

Almost any computer system uses some sort of temporal, or time-based, data. Temporal data could be in the form of contract dates, dates corresponding to school athletic results, or periods of time in which employees are booked in meetings. In any case, with the use of temporal data, database records have a given place on a timeline. However, a database can store only discrete time values, while time itself is continuous. This makes working with temporal data a bit of a challenge.

In this chapter, we'll discuss the fundamentals of working with temporal data, and we'll show how you can implement the three basic temporal types: instants, durations, and periods. We'll also briefly show Transact-SQL functions that manipulate temporal data.

Our recipes demonstrate a mechanism for enforcing granularity rules, how to handle calendar information, and how to extend date datatypes beyond their default scope. We show techniques for manipulating instants, durations, and periods that can be used in any temporal-database problem.

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Medium 9781601322548

Smoke Detection in Video Surveillance Using Optical Flow and Green's Theorem

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, Joan Lu, Fernando G. Tinetti, Jane You, George Jandieri, Gerald Schaefer, Ashu M. G. Solo, Vladimir Volkov CSREA Press PDF


Int'l Conf. IP, Comp. Vision, and Pattern Recognition | IPCV'13 |

Smoke Detection in Video Surveillance Using Optical Flow and Green’s


Melih Altun and Mehmet Celenk

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

Stocker Center, Ohio University

Athens, OH 45701 USA

{ma231709, celenk}

Abstract - Finding smoke in surveillance videos can be crucial in early detection of fire emergencies. Such early detections improve damage prevention and control by enabling the authorities to take the necessary precautionary steps. This paper describes a smoke detection technique developed for videos taken in visual band. The method makes use of optical flow and color filtering to detect smoke covered regions and the associated smoke sources. Next it extracts dynamic smoke features such as average upwards motion above the source and divergence around the source via Green’s theorem. This determines whether the selected region contains smoke. In turn, the extracted dynamic characteristics of the smoke pattern greatly improve detection accuracy of the method and produce highly robust results as demonstrated in the experimental results.

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Medium 9781556509698

New Hampshire

Barbara Sinotte Hunter Publishing ePub


New Hampshire is proud of its state parks; historic sites, nature areas and trails, the crystal clear waters, litter-free landscapes, crisp, clean mountain air, and rich cultural heritage. All add to the New Hampshire park experience. There are approximately 50,000 acres of public lands for recreation use that includes state parks, historic sites and forest, and 6,000 miles of trails woven through the state. Whether its sunbathing and swimming, hiking, mountain biking or camping - its all here.

Information on parks and recreation can be obtained from:

New Hampshire Division of Parks and Recreation
172 Pembroke Road
PO Box 856
Concord, NH 03302-0856
tel. (603) 271-3254

Check out the following websites for details:


Location: From Errol to Berlin, beside SR 16.

With rapids of Class II and III and a relatively long season, this is one of New Hampshires most popular canoe runs. The shoreline is relatively undeveloped, but theres little public land along the route. It is 35 river miles long.

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Medium 9780951017418

The Rhythm of Safety

John Fielding Karnac Books ePub

‘And came on that which is, and caught the deep pulsations of the world.

Aeonian music measuring out the steps of Time—the shocks of Chance—the blows of Death. At length my trance was cancelled, stricken thro’ with doubt.’

(From Tennyson’s In Memorian ICV.)

The neurotic adult patient to be discussed in this paper was one of those seemingly perennial patients whose functioning is based on the avoidance of endings. Insights derived from my work with autistic children have released this patient from the fetters of her autistic practices so that she has become able to generate fundamental understandings which have made termination a reasonably safe possibility for her.

Clinical work which is influenced by a psycho-pathology as elemental as childhood Autism is bound to seem strange to those psychoanalysts who work in terms of ego psychology. It may also seem somewhat different, at least in the early stages, from clinical work which has been influenced by Melanie Klein. The influence of Bion and Winnicott on this paper will be apparent.

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