E HAVE SEEN HOW A READER COMMUNICATES WITH TAGS , but a reader must also communicate with the network and the applications and middleware hosted on the network. While most of the early standardization work has centered on tags and tag protocols, the next year should see important progress in standardization of reader protocols. This is in keeping with a transition from the Compliance era to the era of the RFID-Enabled Enterprise, where greater demand for standards-based interfaces will drive procurement decisions and so drive reader development. An understanding of these protocols will directly help in configuring middleware and applications as well as in debugging communications between readers and applications or middleware on the network.
In this chapter we will discuss the general structure all modern reader protocols share.
We’ll also take a look at some specific proprietary protocols that have been developed by vendors in recent years, a new reader protocol standard developed by EPCglobal, and a competing standard introduced by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). We will then discuss what to expect from future reader protocol development.
Ginseng is one of the most popular herbs in the world, while astragalus is relatively unknown in Western countries. Both of these herbs have important benefits for the athlete, ranging from increased endurance and strength to enhanced immune function. Like Rhaponticum carthamoides, ginseng and astragalus work through nonhormonal pathways, so they can be used for extended periods. But it takes a while for you to see noticeable effects.
Ginseng has been the subject of a wide variety of research experiments in Western countries, both in animals and in humans. The results of these studies are all over the board for reasons that are discussed in this chapter. Nearly all of the experiments with astragalus have been done in China, where the herb is even more popular than ginseng. The bottom line from these studies is that ginseng and astragalus will help you perform better in your sport—provided that you take enough of a standardized extract for a long enough time.
For centuries, scaffolding has helped builders provide access
and support to buildings through the early stages of the construction
process. Programmers, too, use temporary scaffolding code to lend structure
and support until more permanent code is available. Rails automates
scaffolding to make early coding more productive than ever before.
In Chapter1, you saw how Rails took the most
basic Rails request to call an action on a controller with a hash map of
parameters. You also built some primitive views. In this chapter, well
start building a more powerful application called Photo Share, one that you
can use to manage your personal photographs. Well use scaffolding to build
the basic template, which includes a database-backed model, a controller,
and a view. Along the way, youll learn the basics of a few critical Rails
Migrations. This database feature helps database developers create a
database schema in steps, managing differences in the schema across all
of your environments. Migrations will use Ruby code instead of
database-specific SQL code.