One of the first assignments frequently given to new programming
students is the Fibonacci function: given a number n,
return the nth number in the
Fibonacci sequence. A typical response to this assignment might be coded as
Unfortunately, this code has a trick: trying to compute
fib(n) any numbers larger than 40 or so results in
incredibly long running times. In algorithmic terms, this code has
complexity O(2n). In other words, the running
time increases exponentially as the number requested goes up. Before
n gets very large, the running time is too long to be
The reason why the fib function is so expensive is because it redoes
the work each time. If you ask for fib(5), the function
also works out fib(4) and fib(3).
The calculation of fib(4) in turn works out
fib(3) and fib(2). The calculation
of fib(3) works out fib(2) and
fib(1), etc. There is a lot of duplicated effort, and
that duplicated effort takes work and time.
One technique for speeding up this function is memoization. Memoization
works by caching the results of each call in a lookup table. The first time
a function is called with certain arguments, the memoized function computes
the result and associates the function arguments with the result value. When
the function is called later with the same arguments, the memoized function
returns the cached value rather than spending time and processing power
computing the results again.
In a large number of churches from the sixth and seventh centuries, such as the Hagia Sophia, mosaics pour out the wealth of their adornments and are displayed as brilliant works. Byzantine artists loved to depict huge compositions whose details were all distinct; they avoided subjects that involved a large number of figures mingled with one another; they gave preference to those with almost no action, the postures calm and regular, in which the characters could be arranged without at all disturbing the uniformed arrangement of the ensemble. At times they would place the same number on one side as on the other, so as not to disturb the compositional equilibrium. This principle of symmetry had to be maintained in Byzantine art. The painters’ mentality was so imbued with it that it was applied assiduously, even in the smallest works. For this reason this art, even while losing at times something on the side of authenticity and artistic freedom, was so well suited for the decoration of huge structures.
Micro-messaging started out primarily as a way for people to share tiny status updates about themselves, which isn’t a class of information traditionally traded at work. But as people found ambient awareness very powerful in their personal lives, they started to look for similar connections in their professional lives.
Zappos CEO Tony Hsieh had been using Twitter for about a year with a group of friends when he decided to introduce it to his company in the spring of 2008. Today, about 460 Zappos employees use Twitter (approximately a quarter of its workforce). The company lists them on a public website: http://twitter.zappos.com/employees; and it aggregates their posts to Twitter: http://twitter. zappos.com/employee_tweets. It even offers classes to help employees get started with the service.
Hsieh has been a prominent proponent of Twitter, widely covered by the media, and interviewers usually assume Zappos was drawn to Twitter primarily for marketing purposes. But Hsieh says that’s not a motivating factor, and his marketing department wasn’t in on his plan to encourage employees to Twitter. Instead, he was interested in the internal connections it could support. “It helps us build our culture, and it makes working together better,” he says. “Trust is higher. Communication is better.” Employees are more aware of each other inside and outside work, he adds.
The purpose of this paper is to interrogate the connection between bulimia and anxiety. Through several short clinical vignettes, we will examine the connection between anxiety and the demand of the Other.
Andrea is as beautiful as she is thin; she is brilliant but her life is a mess. She defines herself as different, radically different. The first time she saw me she told me, “I’m not like you.” How can she know what I’m like at first glance? She has other needs, she says, she cannot keep in place; she has to move constantly, but it is always too late. What she wants is what was there before, if only she had made a decision other than the one that she did. She is constantly regretting what could have been. It is easy here to perceive the signs of the hysteric’s desire. Maybe. Andrea is not my patient. I met her briefly through a friend of her family who is trying to help her get her act together and get treatment. As Andrea is incapable of keeping appointments, they are looking for an institution to help her: first to stabilize her and afterwards to continue treatment. On a previous hospitalization she jumped from a second floor window and broke her back: “I wanted to get out.” There is a certain ambivalence in her treatment of her body, which she both worships and punishes, submitting to extenuating hours of exercise that leaves her exhausted. There is that quality of the mortification of the body which is often encountered in the clinic of anorexia. From her childhood the friend of the family told me that Andrea was left alone for long hours in her crib while her mother went out with Andrea’s older sister to luncheons or tea parties. The anxiety that inhabits Andrea is as touching as it is pathetic. There is an enormous demand to the Other to take care of her while at the same time she sabotages any help given.