Freud was the first to distinguish a psychodynamic developmental period in the childs life, between the ages of 7 and 10, naming it latency. His original definition was:
[T]he latency period is characterised by the dissolution of the Oedipus Complex, the creation and consolidation of the superego and the erection of ethical and aesthetic barriers in the ego.
(Freud, 1926b: 114)
The latency period starts with the decline of the Oedipus complex. The consolidation of superego and the development of some defence mechanisms (negation, repression, and sublimation) are the most significant features of this period. Consequently, the alliance between superego and defence mechanisms provides the basis for further developmental tasks, such as character formation, social integration, and learning abilities. Thus the re-organization of the defences
is responsible for giving some degree of stability to latency. Through them the reactive formation of morality, shame, and revulsion are structured. In this case, the repression of the sexual libidounder the domain of the superegowill provide the child with the means to develop his or her conscious and pre-conscious abilities to deal with the external world. Sublimation will be the basis of the socialization process, since the sexual instincts are drawn from the sexual target and projected towards social objects, which, in turn, increase in their social value. It is not by chance that children usually begin to be literate around the age of six years. The latency period has a correspondence with the concrete operationsa crucial stage in Piagetian theory of cognitive development (Piaget, 1947, 1954, 2008), in which there is a huge development in cognitive abilities. According to Piaget (1947, 1954, 2008), at early latency the child begins with a progressive decentralization: the reasoning changes from the specific (in psychoanalytic terminologywith a certain experience of the narcissistic type of object choicedyadic narcissist relationship) to the broad (in psychoanalytic terminologyrole of triangulation).
Much of the scientific evidence that doctors rely upon to prescribe drugs is more like infomercials than scientific evidence.
— JOHN ABRAMSON, Overdosed America
Drugs that have been properly prescribed and properly taken are the fourth-leading cause of death in North America. This is alarming when you consider that most drugs don’t actually fix anything — they only relieve symptoms.1 Taking drugs can be a little like releasing a bull in a china shop. Doctors know the drug will do something to your system, but its effects on an individual can be quite unpredictable. This is especially the case with chronic pain medications. The processes by which pain develops in our system, and by which our system heals itself, are very complicated. If any one part of these processes changes, all processes and our whole system are affected. This can mean more pain and side effects. Oftentimes, chronic pain patients end up on a long list of drugs that all cause bad side effects on their own, cause worse side effects when combined, and leave the patient worse off in the long run. Regarding drugs, the best advice I can give is: “Proceed with caution.” Nature and time can be powerful healers, and I recommend, whenever possible, letting them work as they were intended to.
Maintaining a strong national defense requires workers who can do such diverse tasks as run a hospital, command a tank, program a computer system, operate a nuclear reactor, or repair and maintain a helicopter. The military provides training and work experience in these and many other fields for more than 2.4 million people. More than 1.4 million people serve in the active Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force, and more than 1.0 million serve in their Reserve components and the Air and Army National Guard. (The Coast Guard, which also is discussed in this Handbook statement, is part of the Department of Homeland Security.)
The military distinguishes between enlisted and officer careers. Enlisted personnel, who make up about 82 percent of the Armed Forces, carry out the fundamental operations of the military in combat, administration, construction, engineering, health care, human services, and other areas. Officers, who make up the remaining 18 percent of the Armed Forces, are the leaders of the military, supervising and managing activities in every occupational specialty.
Edwards puts forward what can be described as a ‘post-Jungian’ viewpoint concerning the case of Schreber. To Jung’s idea of an anima inflation, he adds the possibility that there may have been a ‘disorder of the deintegrative-reintegrative processes’ of the self (without ruling out some inborn defect). Professor Fleschig, Schreber’s doctor, functioned as a paternal self object, felt to be hostile and dangerous. Schreber identified himself with a maternal self-object, hence his gradual ‘unmanning’.
From the prospective or teleological point of view, Schreber could be seen as trying, via the agency of the self, to ‘heal the pathological splits … between the maternal and paternal self-objects’.
It was in 1907 that Jung published ‘The psychology of dementia praecox’ (CW 3), and for him, and also for analytical psychology, the study of disorders of the self has always been of major interest. Now, with the presentation by Fordham of his clinical work and theoretical views on autism (1976), it seems possible to begin to extend his approach and insight into other clinical areas, and to look again at the schizophrenias, borderline states, narcissistic personality disorders, and homosexuality.
ilhelm Franger commença son étude de Hieronymus Bosch en déplorant
« l’incompréhension vulgaire » dont le maître avait été victime et qui consistait à faire passer son œuvre pour un simple enfantillage. Franger insistait sur le fait que chez Bosch, les symboles « impliquent une parfaite simultanéité de vision et de pensée » et doivent être traités de cette façon. L’auteur considérait toute autre approche comme
« fragmentaire » et il présentait donc son étude comme une vue totale.
Pour comprendre pourquoi le peintre aurait créé un symbolisme muet, l’historien de l’art passa en revue l’ensemble des tableaux, séparant ceux qui étaient énigmatiques au niveau du contenu de ceux qui ne l’étaient pas ou peu. C’est seulement si les « mystères bizarres » sur lesquels était basée la réputation de Bosch se retrouvaient dans tous ses tableaux qu’on pourrait les qualifier de « fantasmagories irresponsables d’un extatique ». Franger constata que le contenu déviant n’existait que dans un groupe clairement défini de retables – les trois grands triptyques du Jardin des délices, La Tentation de saint Antoine de Lisbonne et Le