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Birgitta Heiller and Charlotte Sills
In What Do You Say after You Say Hello?, Eric Berne, the founder of transactional analysis, states that “The script is what the person planned to do in early childhood, and the life course is what actually happens. The life course is determined by genes, by parental background, and by external circumstances” (1972, p. 53).
A few pages later, Berne speaks of Daemon and Phusis:
The forces of destiny are foursome and fearsome: demonic parental programming, abetted by the inner voice the ancients called the Daemon; constructive parental programming, aided by the thrust of life called Phusis long ago; external forces, still called Fate, and independent aspirations, for which the ancients have no human name, since for them such were the privileges mainly of gods and kings. [ibid., p.56]
Thus, script is seen as the interplay of universal and personal circumstances.
Since Berne’s writings, transactional analysis has often put an emphasis on the “script apparatus,” which contains the first two elements and, in fact, mostly the first: in other words, early environmental pressure, be it made with ill or good will, has been considered to be the most powerful shaper of a person’s life course. The self-limiting accommodations made by the child in those early years become the “script” for the story of his life. With some notable exceptions (e.g., Cornell, 1988; English, 1988, 2003; Summers & Tudor, 2000), script—by definition restricting—has been seen as pathology. But, most importantly for the purpose of our argument, the existential context into which Berne placed the concept of script has been all but lost.See more
|Macario Giraldo||Karnac Books||ePub|
The French words savoir and connaissance can both be translated by the English word knowledge. Savoir, however, is a very different kind of knowledge from that of connaissance. Savoir, in Lacanian psychoanalysis, is knowledge that refers more directly to the drives, to what Lacan calls jouissance. In this sense, it is knowledge that relates more to the real. The knowledge in connaissance is closer to the English term. It is knowledge that is constantly influenced by the prohibitions, ideals, and laws of society, by the cultural accepted modalities of each group. It is knowledge more related to the symbolic and the imaginary. The effect of these laws and prohibitions is a gap, a lack-in-being. To this effect, as pointed out previously, the human responds with the drives and finds ways of jouissance as a means of circumventing the barriers imposed by the symbolic.
The drives operate through the partial objects (breast, faeces, genitals, voice, and gaze). The drive does not imply lack. Desire implies lack. The child begins to develop a way around desire to find drive satisfaction. Because some of these ways are interfered with by society, the child begins to develop forms of jouissance through fantasy. Through fantasy, we can go beyond the law, beyond the pleasure principle that establishes a limit to maintaining a homeostatic state in pleasure. So, jouissance violates these laws as opposed to the ones protecting desire.See more
|Karen Press||Carcanet Press Ltd.|
|Eric Faulkner||O'Reilly Media|
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Do you remember when music was distributed on vinyl? Record albums were prone to damage and dust, and they were too large to be truly portable. Plus, you couldn’t possibly listen to them in the car. The first major improvement to that format to gain wide acceptance was the cassette tape, but those had their limitations as well. They were susceptible to environmental hazards, like heat, and eventually wore out through continued use.
They also eliminated the random-access feature that vinyl provided. Then along came compact discs. CDs were still in danger of damage from scratches, but to a much lesser degree than vinyl. The format took off because of the convenient form factor and random-access features. But of course it would be only a matter of time before improvements in distribution formats made CDs inconvenient or unnecessary, if not obsolete.
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|Ben Fry||O'Reilly Media||ePub|
Processing is not Java. If you're a Java developer, using Processing may be confusing if you expect it to be too much like Java. If this book is your first introduction to Processing, you are strongly urged to first get used to the Processing way of doing things as presented in the first several chapters. It'll be easier to adapt to using the Processing API inside a Java project once you've developed a mental model for how the API works and how Processing sketches are structured.
The Processing syntax is essentially a dialect of Java. When a user
runs a sketch in the PDE, the code is converted into Java syntax using a
preprocessor, and then compiled as standard Java code. The implementation
of all Processing Core API functions can be found in the package
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