Na krtko przed pierwsz konferencj Rails David Heinemeier rozpocz prac nad cakowicie nowym podejciem do projektowania i tworzenia aplikacji Rails. Gwny wtek jego wystpienia na tej konferencji nosi tytu Zasoby w Rails. Jego prezentacja stanowia wprowadzenie do idei tworzenia zorientowanego na zasobach oraz bya omwieniem architektury programowej zwanej REST (ang. Representational State Transfer).
Architektura REST bya wczeniej przedstawiona przez Roya Fieldinga w jego pracy doktorskiej (http://www.ics.uci.edu/~fielding/pubs/dissertation/top.htm). Umoliwia budowanie bogato wyposaonych i rozszerzalnych usug oraz aplikacji WWW w oparciu o niewielki zestaw podstawowych operacji. Operacje te to standardowe metody da HTTP (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE), z ktrych na pewno znamy GET i POST. Programici aplikacji WWW dugo ignorowali pen specyfikacj HTTP i obarczali nadmiern odpowiedzialnoci metody GET i POST, zmuszajc je do przejmowania na siebie caego ciaru dania i wysyania danych do dynamicznych aplikacji WWW i z nich. Jednak te metody da, te czasowniki, s jdrem bardzo prostej, lecz ekspresyjnej metodologii projektowej.
AS STATED in the opening chapters, psychotherapists and analysts have always wanted to explore the social JL \~. world and current events. It is not a new fad or fashion. Freud hoped to understand ‘the riddles of the world’, and Jung said that therapists ‘cannot avoid coming to grips with contemporary history’.1 But, as we saw, many attempts to link psychotherapy and social issues have tended to present everything as exclusively psychological, thereby keeping the therapist in control and above the fray. In particular, attempts to put political leaders and other significant figures such as Bill Clinton, Tony Blair or Princess Diana on the couch as patients have, quite rightly, been criticized and ridiculed.
It is crucial not to confuse or conflate the processes that go on within an individual with what happens on the much more complex level of society. The basic claim of this book is that, provided such errors are avoided, psychotherapy can be a useful and imaginative tool of social criticism rather than descending into self-indulgent psycho-babble. The temptation to analyse prominent people in public should be resisted and, instead, fruitful working partnerships can be forged with people working in social policy, education, the media and environmentalism. Therapists and analysts also need to recall that not everything is rosy in their own professional politics; they must avoid giving the impression that they have all the answers.
By nature, men are nearly alike; by practice, they get to be wide apart.
Even today, Freud is regarded by many as having been obsessed with sexuality. During his lifetime, this outspoken concern with the role of sexuality in human life earned him an aura of both fascination and opprobrium. Apostates like Jung and Adler broke with psychoanalysis largely on the grounds of Freud’s relentless assertion that sexuality both drives a great deal of human endeavour and drives men and women to madness, both collectively and as individuals.
Sex and dread
Syphilis, the “great pox”, had existed in Europe since the late fifteenth century. An accurate diagnostic test was not developed until 1906, and effective treatment was not available until just before the First World War. It has been estimated that in Freud’s time 10 to 20 percent of the urban male population suffered from venereal disease (Decker, 1991). “Walking through doctors’ neighbourhoods”, writes Decker, “one could read on every sixth or seventh door ‘specialist for Skin and Venereal Diseases’“ (p. 43). According to one study, 45 percent of young German clerks and merchants, aged 19 to 45, had suffered at one time or another from syphilis or gonorrhoea. Another study indicated that, at minimum, one German man in five had at some time suffered from syphilis, and that the incidence of gonorrhoea averaged one attack for every mature male in the country (Ramas, 1980, cited in Decker, 1991). Syphilis, in its tertiary phase (which was first recorded during the nineteenth century), could attack the central nervous system, causing insanity. Passed on from mother to foetus, it was a significant cause of infant mortality (Arrizabalaga, Henderson, & French, 1997). Gonorrhoea was described as particularly painful for women.