LINDA C. TILLMAN KATHLEEN BROWN FRANKLIN CAMPBELLJONES MARIA LUISA GONZÁLEZ
Throughout this issue, we have sought to bring to the forefront curriculum content and pedagogical approaches that advance effective teaching of social justice in educational administration programs. We have gathered, from professors in educational leadership programs across the country, curriculum designs, formats, and activities that address teaching social justice leadership. We have compiled effective instructional strategies that increase student awareness and undergird their activism for social justice as future educational leaders.
Social justice inquires of us, What is fair and just? It is our contention that in addressing this question, we must reach beyond the legal and pragmatic and travel down the path of what is ethical and moral (Habermas, 1990; Low & Clift, 1981). A journey of this nature emphasizes a willingness to be disturbed at the very foundation of our beliefs from which our world-views are cast. It is in the ethical arena that ideals of societal fairness are whet and new assumptions of the way things “ought to be” arise. We assert that educational leadership programs must establish learning environments that assist aspiring school leaders in agitating and disturbing their values and beliefs in an effort to unshackle themselves from traditions of entitlement and privilege. Through examination of historical events, self-reflection, critical discourse, and dialogue, aspiring educational leaders can develop a critical consciousness poised to engage schools in the pressing change to meet the academic and affective needs of each child.
Once leadership commitment is established, corporations need to implement their sustainability strategy through appropriate organizational structures, systems, performance measures, rewards, culture, and people. This alignment of strategy, structure, and management systems is essential for companies in both coordinating activities and motivating employees (see our model [Fig. 1.7] on page 46). In this chapter I discuss:
The organizational structure around sustainability issues often entails organizing activities and resources spread throughout many locations.1 Corporations must consider whether key resources and activities should be centralized or decentralized and decide on a level of central control versus business unit autonomy. These decisions must be appropriately aligned with corporate culture. The decision to either centralize or decentralize an organizational structure can depend on several contextual factors, including: 86
Larger companies, operating in multiple industries and multiple geographic locations, face more challenging environments, which often lead to a more decentralized organizational structure. The advantages of decentralization often include greater flexibility and increased responsiveness. Specific local expertise about markets, competitors, and customers provides valuable knowledge that could translate into innovative and efficient solutions. A more decentralized decision-making process gives managers autonomy and can create an environment that is often more conducive to experimenting and developing new ideas.
Abstract— This paper describes a sliding autonomy approach for coordinating a team of robots to assist human operators to accomplish tasks while adapting to new or unexpected situations by requesting help from the human operators. 1
resolved by itself. The question is how and when to initiate different levels of interactions between humans and robots.
I. T HE P ROBLEM
Our approach to the above problem is to develop a multi-robot graphical control interface that enables sliding autonomy of controls , varying from fully autonomous operations, to human-intervened operations, and to pure teleoperation. This control interface allows human operators to monitor the task execution status and react to unforeseen issues. It also helps establish the interaction between humans and robots by allowing them to inﬂuence each other’s action selection. In order to coordinate the team of robots to autonomously accomplish the high-level task, we use an auction-based task allocation mechanism to allocate subtasks to appropriate robots.
The Pauline Hour of Adoration was developed by Blessed James Alberione, the Founder of the Pauline Family.
Born in 1884 on a poor family farm, James Alberione knew from an early age that he was called to be a priest. Yet his vocational journey was not without struggle. At age sixteen, he was expelled from the minor seminary. Allowed to re-enter the seminary on probation, James received the profound inspiration that would shape his life’s work during his all-night Eucharistic vigil on the night of December 31, 1900. Receiving a special light from Jesus in the Eucharist, the young Alberione was deeply moved to do something for the people of his time. Ordained in 1907, Alberione’s spiritual and pastoral vision continued to take shape as he became expert in understanding the spiritual needs of the world, which he called “reading the signs of the times.” These spiritual needs compelled him to take action. He was inspired to respond to the most urgent needs by founding the ten institutes of the Pauline Family1—often in ways ahead of his time and without others’ understanding or approval.
When iOS apps are connected to the Internet, they become more lively. For
example, imagine an app that brings high-quality wallpapers to its users.
The user can pick from a big list of wallpapers and assign any of those
images as his iOS background. Now consider an app that does the same thing
but adds to its list of wallpapers every day, week, or month. The user
comes back to the app, and voilà! Tons of new wallpapers are dynamically
added to the app. That is the magic of web services and the Internet. This
can easily be achieved with basic knowledge of networking, XML, JSON, and
sharing options, along with some creativity on the app developer’s
In this chapter, we are going to explore various classes that
connect our applications with the Internet and social media. Take the
NSURLSession class for example. This class replaces NSURLConnection
and allows us to create sophisticated upload and download tasks that use
block objects and are very configurable. For instance, as you will see in
this chapter, using the NSURLSession
class, we will be able to download content from a URL even when our
application is in the background.