In this chapter, we take a
pragmatic look at developing applications in Scala. We discuss a few
language and API features that we havent covered before, examine common
design patterns and idioms, and revisit traits with an
eye toward structuring our code effectively.
Like Java and .NET, Scala
supports annotations for adding
metadata to declarations. Annotations are used by a
variety of tools in typical enterprise and Internet applications. For
example, there are annotations that provide directives to the compiler,
and some Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) frameworks use annotations on
types and type members to indicate persistence mapping information. While
some uses for annotations in the Java and .NET worlds can be accomplished
through other means in Scala, annotations can be essential for
interoperating with Java and .NET libraries that rely heavily on them.
Fortunately, Java and .NET annotations can be used in Scala
The interpretation of Scala
annotations depends on the runtime environment. In this section, we will
focus on the JDK environment.
Before you start using the CouchDB API, you need to think about the
basic processes of accessing the CouchDB server, and how you perform the
basic commands and operations that make up your interaction.
For this chapter, we are going to concern ourselves with the basic
layout, structure, and how to communicate and exchange the basic
information to and from the server.
On that note, it is worth restating that CouchDB works entirely
through the HTTP-based CouchDB REST API. That means that if you have an
application or environment that can talk HTTP (and many can), you can
communicate through the CouchDB API. The interaction is entirely based
around the HTTP protocol and the path and data that you supply, either as
part of the URL specification or as HTTP payload data.
In this context, HTTP is ideally suited to the database interactions
because it supports many of the same basic operations in a database
(Create, Retrieve, Update, and Delete) and can be directly mapped to the
HTTP protocol operations of PUT, GET, POST, and DELETE.
Eligibility for special education is contingent on two criteria. First, a student must be determined to have one or more of the disabilities specified under IDEA, and second, that disability must adversely impact the student’s educational performance.
IDEA includes the following disability categories (Assistance to States for the Education of Children With Disabilities, 2010a):
Resocialization and uses of Social Networks for elderly
A. Cecile Treton1, B. Christian Bourret2
Department Culture & society, Paris Est University, Paris, France
Dicen, Paris Ouest University Marne la Vallée, Paris, France
Abstract - The subject of this publication focuses on the relational commitment problematic. The objective of the research is to identify the relational patterns of the elderly.
The research method questions about relationship dynamics which include interactions with for example alliances and desalliances, common points and affinities, meeting places which include the use of social networks on the web. We study the new relational technologies around the notion of situation, describe by Alex Mucchielli. The proposed work will mainly rely on qualitative methods: field observations, field interviews with stakeholders, mainly in situation. For complete organizational and technological approaches, with the biographical interview, we want to know how the person creates its social network.
If you wish to make an apple pie from scratch, you must first invent the universe.
—Carl Sagan, Cosmos
For most of us, the notion of emergence is tough to grasp because the concept is just entering our consciousness. When something new arises, we have no simple, shorthand language for it. The words we try seem like jargon. So we stumble with words, images, and analogies to communicate this whiff in the air that we can barely smell. We know it exists because something does not fit easily into what we already know.
Emergence disrupts, creates dissonance. We make sense of the disturbances that emergence creates partially through developing language that helps us to tease out useful distinctions. As the vocabulary to describe what is emerging becomes more familiar, our understanding increases. For example, disturbance, disruption, and dissonance are part of the language of engaging emergence. These terms are cousins, and I often use them interchangeably. Disruption is the most general of the three words. If something involves an emotional nuance, chances are that I call the disruption a disturbance. When conflict is involved or the disruption is particularly grating, with a lack of agreement or harmony, I will likely refer to its dissonance.