Cooperation relations in psychoanalytic social work (interagency working)
Psychotherapy, and most particularly psychoanalytically orientated psychotherapy, takes place in the relationship between therapist and patient. Influences from outside are seen as disturbance rather than as part of the therapeutic process. Strict confidentiality is maintained except for a very few exceptions even as regards family. The work of therapist and patient centres on the inner processes of the patient. Anything emanating from outside enters only through the subjective view of the patient to figure in the therapeutic exchange. This attitude has only changed with the increasing numbers of the treatments of patients with severe disorders who are also in a tangle of problems of social integration and are dependent on social support in a variety of forms. Professionals began to acknowledge that influences on therapy from outside and interventions of the therapist in the social world of the patient's life could be an important element in the therapeutic process.
(1) the ego links the sense data of external experience with the associated conscious awareness of the sense impression;
(2) the stream of unconnected impressions and events are made suitable for storing in memory;
(3) these stored events are reviewed and one is chosen which enables facts already ‘known’, i.e. stored, to be harmonized so that the relationship between them is established and the place of each element seen in its relationship to the whole;
(4) the interplay between paranoid–schizoid and depressive positions is made possible by a selected fact which is known as the ‘harmonizing or unifying fact’ spatially, and the ‘cause’ temporally, or when time is an essential element in the relationship between the elements.
The dream, therefore, is the mechanism by which there comes into operation,
(a) the social conscience, associated with splitting of the super-ego and retreat from the depressive position to the paranoid–schizoid position. This seems identical with the social guilt and true super-ego which can only come into being with the Oedipus complex, but which I think is a highly persecutory super-ego which becomes more persecutory since it is split up. Each split itself becomes a complete super-ego and this leads to further splitting, the fragmentation becoming progressively more minute. This contributes to the state where dreams are ‘invisible’, wet, and being awake is ‘dry’;
A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.
UNDERSTANDING AND EVALUATING our moral obligations requires making judgments regarding which aspects of a particular situation are ethically relevant. In this sense, the ideas of the previous section on water as a community resource are primarily concerned with the interests of humans. Alternately, and as this section considers, one may begin with a broader determination of what interests count as part of the moral equation, or who and what belongs in the moral community.
Arguments regarding moral consideration and the environment typically take three forms. The first is to extend the boundaries of the moral community by appealing to a common characteristic between humans and nonhumans. For example,Albert Schweitzer argued that we must respect the will-to-live wherever we find it, including in the lives of individual nonhuman animals and plants.2 Schweitzers arguments, and ones like them, typically depend on finding a common characteristic between human and other life, and then arguing that if we respect humans because they have this characteristic then we have to respect other creatures that share it.