For many students, particularly those at risk of school failure, the caring relationship often must precede their engagement with subject matter.
—JONATHA W. VARE AND KATHRYN S. MILLER
Have you ever walked into a school that feels qualitatively different? A school that is more than just “good”? In these schools, interactions between students, teachers, and other staff members are warm and positive. These buildings seem to hum with productive activity, and evidence of the high value placed on student work and learning is everywhere. In these schools, a critical connection has been made between students’ academic needs and their need to feel emotionally and physically safe, accepted, and valued. These schools are caring learning communities.
A caring learning community is especially important for today’s students, some of whom might not have adult role models outside of school to model a caring ethic. However, it is not uncommon in the current educational environment for school leaders to abandon any concern for the culture of the school. The most important thing has been the intense focus on standards and accountability. Donna Marriott (2001) notes that:
S’il s’initia au dessin dans l’industrie de son père, qui concevait des motifs pour textile, Albert Gleizes, neveu du Grand Prix de Rome 1875 Léon Comerre, apprit véritablement à peindre, en autodidacte, alors qu’il avait une vingtaine d’années. Comme nombres d’artistes de l’époque, ses premières toiles trahissent l’influence impressionniste, notamment celle de Pissarro ou de Sisley, mais son admiration pour Cézanne et sa pratique du dessin firent rapidement évoluer son style. Quoique le paysage restât longtemps son genre de prédilection, le travail sur les formes, les volumes et les différents points de vue, témoigne d’un soin et d’un intérêt tout particulier. En 1909, le Portrait de Pierre Jean-Jouve, par Henri Le Fauconnier, orienta de manière décisive sa peinture, et le cubisme, que l’on nommait encore à peine, et qu’avaient façonné les « Demoiselles » de Picasso, vint nourrir toute la puissance de son œuvre. LaFemme aux phlox, accrochée dans la salle 41 de l’exposition controversée des Indépendants, vint illustrer cette évolution.
The priority of the money system shifted from funding real investment for building community wealth to funding financial games designed solely to enrich Wall Street without the burden of producing anything of value. —David Korten
When we talk about the 1 percent, it is tempting to personalize it, envisioning individual millionaires and specific people in the bottom 99 percent. This is reinforced by the photographs that thousands of people have posted on websites with their “I am the 99 percent” stories.
But, as we’ve discussed, a key explanation for the lopsided distribution of wealth is how the 1 percent teams up with leaders of large transnational corporations in the United States and the rest of the world. In fact, many of the leaders of large transnational corporations are members of the predatory, rule-rigging 1 percent. This corporate 1 percent owns a gigantic percentage of the globe’s private assets and transmits it though ownership flows to shareholders, most of whom are in the top 1 percent of individuals.
Affect has both psychic and physical manifestations
It has been obvious since ancient times—to anyone who cared to look—that affect can be influenced directly, and in specific ways, by physical and chemical means. In the historical epoch during which psychoanalysis was born, the most prominent examples of such influences were (1) neurosyphilitic infection and (2) alcohol, morphine, and cocaine intoxication. As a neurological clinician and researcher, Freud was thoroughly familiar with these topics. He was also aware of the addictive (that is to say, motivational) properties of alcohol, morphine, and cocaine. This knowledge no doubt contributed to the theory of affect that he later developed.
According to Freud’s classical affect theory, all behaviour is ultimately motivated by the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of unpleasure, but pleasurable and unpleasurable emotions are merely conscious manifestations of an underlying quasi-physiological process. Freud formulated this underlying process in terms of his concept of “drive” [Trieb], which he defined as: