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Medium 9780596510169

Automation and Reporting

Slice PDF May 27, 2014

Python

Python 2.4 is included with the FreeBSD base system. If you need to, you can replace 2.4 with version 2.5 from the Ports tree in the /usr/ports/lang/python25/ directory. To set the new version to the default, symlink the new executable to the generic name: ln -s /usr/local/bin/python25 /usr/local/bin/python

Automation and Reporting

What good is an operating system if it can't perform automated tasks and create readable feedback that shows system activities? FreeBSD offers nothing above what most other Unix-like operating systems provide in these areas, so if you already have some experience with cron and syslog, you can probably skip this section— there's nothing new for you here.

The Cron Daemon

The cron implementation in FreeBSD is Vixie-cron, and is configured with the crontab command. Rather than reprint the information in the cron and crontab man pages, this guide will direct you to them.

The cron time format is as follows: minutes, hours, days, months, and day of the week. It also accepts plain English time formats such as @hourly, @daily, @weekly, @monthly, and @yearly. If you need something more specific or more frequent than hourly, you need to put your cron job into the aforementioned time format.

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Medium 9781565928718

8. Packet Filtering

Slice ePub May 27, 2014

Packet filtering is a network security mechanism that works by controlling what data can flow to and from a network. The basic device that interconnects IP networks is called a router. A router may be a dedicated piece of hardware that has no other purpose, or it may be a piece of software that runs on a general-purpose computer running Unix, Windows NT, or another operating system (MS-DOS, Windows 95/98, Macintosh, or other). Packets traversing an internetwork (a network of networks) travel from router to router until they reach their destination. The Internet itself is sort of the granddaddy of internetworks the ultimate "network of networks".

A router has to make a routing decision about each packet it receives; it has to decide how to send that packet on towards its ultimate destination. In general, a packet carries no information to help the router in this decision, other than the IP address of the packet's ultimate destination. The packet tells the router where it wants to go but not how to get there. Routers communicate with each other using routing protocols such as the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) to build routing tables in memory to determine how to get the packets to their destinations. When routing a packet, a router compares the packet's destination address to entries in the routing table and sends the packet onward as directed by the routing table. Often, there won't be a specific route for a particular destination, and the router will use a default route; generally, such a route directs the packet towards smarter or better-connected routers. (The default routes at most sites point towards the Internet.)

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Medium 9781449311520

8. MapReduce Features

Slice ePub May 29, 2014

This chapter looks at some of the more advanced features of MapReduce, including counters and sorting and joining datasets.

There are often things you would like to know about the data you are analyzing but that are peripheral to the analysis you are performing. For example, if you were counting invalid records and discovered that the proportion of invalid records in the whole dataset was very high, you might be prompted to check why so many records were being marked as invalidperhaps there is a bug in the part of the program that detects invalid records? Or if the data were of poor quality and genuinely did have very many invalid records, after discovering this, you might decide to increase the size of the dataset so that the number of good records was large enough for meaningful analysis.

Counters are a useful channel for gathering statistics about the job: for quality control or for application-level statistics. They are also useful for problem diagnosis. If you are tempted to put a log message into your map or reduce task, it is often better to see whether you can use a counter instead to record that a particular condition occurred. In addition to counter values being much easier to retrieve than log output for large distributed jobs, you get a record of the number of times that condition occurred, which is more work to obtain from a set of logfiles.

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Medium 9781617147500

Chapter 4: Becoming A Star

Slice PDF May 13, 2014

goals was the game winner against Canada in the quarterfinals.

But Russia lost in the semifinals. Then the team lost the game for the bronze medal to the Czech Republic.

Even President Barack Obama is glad that Ovechkin chose to play hockey in the NHL. Speaking at a graduation ceremony in Moscow in

July 2009, Obama said, “As a resident of Washington DC, I continue to benefit from the contributions of Russians—specifically, from Alexander

Ovechkin. We’re very pleased to have him in Washington DC.”

Ovechkin continued his success during his second NHL season. The young star scored 46 goals and added 46 assists for

92 points. And his opponents feared his hard checks. However,

Ovechkin often struggled on defense. He posted a team-worst rating of minus-19. That meant that the Capitals’ opponents scored 19 more goals than the Capitals did when Ovechkin was on the ice.

Ovechkin worked hard to improve his defensive play, and he succeeded. He had a plus-28 rating during the 2007–08 season. That was the seventh-best rating in the league. He also

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Medium 9781935249733

Chapter 3: Leaders as Teachers: Facilitating Individual Learning, Growth, and Development

Slice ePub September 06, 2014

Leaders as Teachers:
Facilitating individual
Learning, Growth,
and Development

Many view the quality of relationships in an organization as the foundation for its accomplishments and success. In schools, as in other organizational settings, the culture that develops as an expression of these dynamics is a central determining factor of the school’s ability to improve and thrive. Bolman and Deal (1997) identify culture as one of the “wellsprings of high performance” in high-performing groups (p. 261). Martin-Kniep (2008) cites research suggesting that culture can create the conditions for people to act courageously and exercise initiative without fear of retribution or ridicule. Wagner et al. (2006) Define culture as “the shared values, beliefs, assumptions, expectations, and behaviors related to students and learning, teachers and teaching, instructional leadership, and the quality of relationships within and beyond school” (p. 102). Culture, they say, represents the “invisible and powerful meanings and mindsets held individually and collectively throughout the system” (p. 102).

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