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Medium 9781847770615

A Garden in North Germany

Elaine Feinstein Carcanet Press Ltd. PDF
Medium 9780253014689

12. Dimensions of Security (1939–1945)

Dean J. Kotlowski Indiana University Press PDF




Being passed over for the vice presidency represented the first serious setback in Paul V. McNutt’s political career. And yet he had reason to look forward as 1940 turned into 1941. Scuttlebutt around Washington had McNutt replacing Josephus Daniels as ambassador to Mexico. Others thought that he would head a new cabinet department to oversee public welfare.1 If these were not the most prestigious assignments, rumors of McNutt occupying them suggested that he still was needed in the administration. His public career was hardly over, and he continued to head the Federal Security Agency (FSA), which oversaw much of the New Deal.

The Federal Security Agency both frustrated and challenged McNutt. He was not an enthusiastic bureaucrat and the period that he headed the FSA, from 1939 to 1945, proved to be one of tremendous change. Among other things, World

War II caused McNutt to broaden and deepen his conception of what “security” meant for Americans. The FSA took on new responsibilities, using its health and welfare programs to enhance America’s fitness for fighting. It also oversaw the beginnings of the U.S. government’s research in biological weapons—an early program of homeland security. The goal of “security,” so evident in the social and economic realms in the 1930s, had expanded into the military and international spheres by the 1940s.

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Medium 9780596527549

23.10 Getting the Most out of PowerShell with PowerShell IDE

James Avery O'Reilly Media PDF


Getting Support

Microsoft provides plenty of support for PowerShell. The PowerShell team has its own blog at, plus there are numerous webcasts available.

There’s also a dedicated newsgroup, accessible via PowerShell’s home page.

PowerShell in a Nutshell

PowerShell is a big step forward for process automation on Windows systems. It looks like just another shell at first sight, but its emphasis on objects is truly revolutionary.

Script programmers have the full power of .NET and COM at their fingertips. PowerShell provides looping and branching constructs, creating a true scripting environment that is dramatically different from other environments. The object pipelines are a great productivity booster, allowing you to express complex operations like iteration, filtering, sorting, and more with a single line of code. And that’s not all—a standard shell that can use .NET objects has great potential. Programs will start exposing their objects to scripts, and users will be able to manipulate those programs with minimal effort. Tools can be built to generate PowerShell scripts. Recording and generating scripts is actually planned as a feature for PowerShell version 2. Also, expect more and more programs to start offering management snap-ins that work on top of PowerShell.

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Medium 9781425806866

Chapter 6

Sharroky Hollie, Foreword by Eugenia Mora-Flores, Ph.D. Shell Education PDF

Of the myriad of topics I cover in my professional-development programs, the validation and affirmation of nonstandard languages, or what I will call unaccepted languages, remains the most controversial and provocative. It stands to reason that controversy occurs, because language is arguably the most central and integral aspect of an individual’s cultural base and his or her heritage.

With that centrality can come hypersensitivity that causes some to become what I define as offensitive.

Moreover, discussions about language seem to be coupled with ignorance, misinformation, and entrenched negative beliefs about nonstandard or unaccepted languages. Similar to but different from the other pedagogies that have been described in previous chapters, validating and affirming home language requires the developing

CLR educator to have more extensive background knowledge about language. This knowledge is meant to undo the damage of institutional linguistic racism and institutional ignorance about unaccepted languages and language use in general. Notably, language deficit is a perspective commonly held about the home languages of students who have been identified as the most likely to be underserved. CLR is designed to overcome the barriers that this perspective presents not only for students but also for teachers, administrators, and policymakers. Specifically, CLR educators must accomplish three objectives in order to be responsive to the home languages of their students. These objectives are:

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Medium 9781491907337

9. Hypothesis Testing

Allen B. Downey O'Reilly Media ePub

The code for this chapter is in For information about downloading and working with this code, see Using the Code.

Exploring the data from the NSFG, we saw several “apparent effects,” including differences between first babies and others. So far we have taken these effects at face value; in this chapter, we put them to the test.

The fundamental question we want to address is whether the effects we see in a sample are likely to appear in the larger population. For example, in the NSFG sample we see a difference in mean pregnancy length for first babies and others. We would like to know if that effect reflects a real difference for women in the U.S., or if it might appear in the sample by chance.

There are several ways we could formulate this question, including Fisher null hypothesis testing, Neyman-Pearson decision theory, and Bayesian inference.[4] What I present here is a subset of all three that makes up most of what people use in practice, which I will call classical hypothesis testing.

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