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|Mark Frauenfelder||Maker Media, Inc||ePub|
WRITTEN BY BOB PARKS and ILLUSTRATED BY CHRISTINA EMPEDOCLES
Paul Bohm, founder of hackerspaces.org, was reading a news feed on the subway when he heard the MakerBot news. “I was immediately excited for them,” says the 30-year-old entrepreneur. “Not because someone somewhere made money, but because it’s a case study in taking an idea, hiring people in your own local area, and executing on it.”
When word that MakerBot — the Brooklyn-based 3D printer manufacturer — was acquired on June 19, many garage entrepreneurs like Bohm had been following the story real-time. It started out as a project among friends in the NYC Resistor makerspace, a simple effort to build a flexible, easy-to-use version of the open-source RepRap printer. An early test unit in 2008 sent up smoke, but after many tries and five generations of printers, the company now has 330 employees, sales of over 10,000 U.S.-made bots, and projected revenue of more than $50 million.
With growth brought many changes. Along the way, the company that started with an adamantly open-source philosophy found that opening all their technology to the public wasn’t a viable business, a move that offended many in its user community. Then amid conflicts, two of the three company founders left in 2012. And as MakerBot rose and early investors sought a return, it became an attractive acquisition target for a large industrial firm that — 25 years ago — pioneered this kind of 3D printing, Minneapolis-based Stratasys.See All
These reflections come from three years of work at the Refugee Therapy Centre.
My previous experience has been as a traditionally trained psychotherapist in private practice. I am particularly interested in how these two areas of work relate to, and inform, each other. I am focusing on the situation where client and therapist do not share a common language and an interpreter takes a dynamic part in the work.
Freud's theory and technique in relation to the role of speech in psychoanalysis
Common sense tells us that it matters intensely what can be spoken—in terms of the self being able to recognize its thoughts and feelings, and to share its experience with others.
Behind the naïve question “Does it matter how much can be put into words?” and the common-sense response, “Of course we know that it does!”, we can trace Freud's struggle to develop theory about the centrality of speech in psychoanalysis. He gave his patients a basic rule: that they should say directly whatever came into their minds, while on the couch, without holding anything back. This work of free association, and the analyst's interpretation, had the aim of lifting repression and extending the patient's area of consciousness. Freud also developed his aim of strengthening the patient's ego, by means of the analytic work. A note on the development of Freud's thinking concerning the role of speech related to mental functioning, is placed at the end of this chapter.See All
|Bruce W. Perry||O'Reilly Media||ePub|
If automation honchos want to do anything with their computer, it’s command and control the operating system itself. You want to be able to back up, create, delete, or otherwise manage files, but only of certain types or modification dates, for example. A programmer wants a script to be able to return information about all of the volumes on the desktop, including the bytes of free or occupied space and the contents of these disks. A scripter desires to find out about a machine’s largest free block of memory space, then shut the machine down or put it to sleep. These tasks and much more can be accomplished by scripting the Finder. This is the venerable Mac application that handles the graphical interface between the user and the machine’s operating and file systems. Finder objects like icons, folders, windows, and menus are what you see on your computer screen. The much hallowed Finder is the alternative to working solely within a featureless window typing phrases on a single command line. The Finder provides the visual nature of the Macintosh that has largely made this computer brand famous.See All
|Judith Trowell||Karnac Books||ePub|
With the arrival of puberty, parents become anxious, fearing some catastrophe. It is a time of rapid change physically and emotionally, and psychologically the young person is in flux. Parents fear that their daughters will become pregnant and that their sons will get involved with the “wrong set” and be led astray. The media do not help, with constant accounts of the high teenage pregnancy rate, the amount of drug use particularly in clubs, or alcohol consumption as an epidemic. Violence and the knife/gun culture is also very frightening. But most young people are not in gangs, not out on the streets every night, though they may be out and about at weekends. Young adolescents cannot legally buy alcohol or cigarettes but do, of course, have older friends and acquaintances who will buy these for them.
Adolescence is not an easy stage for parents to manage: they remember their own adolescence and know only too well that to forbid something is to enhance its desirability. Sex education and education about drugs and alcohol does not seem to be very effective in adolescence and perhaps should be focused on the primary-school-age children, at 9, 10, 11 years of age.See All
|Auestad, Lene||Karnac Books||ePub|
Populism in question
The concept of populism has seemingly become an indispensable part of any democratic political culture. The fact that it is so widely acknowledged in the analyses of social, political and institutional phenomena by historians, social scientists, journalists and politicians alike indicates that populism tends to emerge at different times and in various places. It also seems that, today, populist slogans are not only used by radical parties, as is often said in the literature. Populist rhetoric has been exercised by vast political platforms, not only on the right but also on the left of the political scene (Betz, 1994, p. 33; Kazin, 1995, p. 78; Mudde, 2000, p. 67; Taggart, 1996, p. 14; Zakaria, 2003, p. 56). Populism today is not restricted to populist parties as such, but it is increasingly associated with European leaders and social movements.
Mudde defines populism as “an ideology that considers society to be ultimately separated into two homogeneous and antagonistic groups, ‘the pure people’ versus ‘the corrupt elite’, and which argues that politics should be an expression of the general will of the people” (Mudde, 2007, p. 41). Leaving aside the question of whether the above definition considers populism an ideology or not, it undoubtedly provides a collection of the features of populism of which the first and foremost is negativism. Populism reacts against elites and institutions and, thus, it is perceived as anti-capitalism, anti-Semitism, anti-urbanism, anti-modernism, anti-etc. Populism derives its expressiveness from negativism. Negativism and expressiveness are presented by a discourse. Here, the discourse plays an important role and is based on the rhetoric that expresses not who the populists are for, but who the populists are against. The second feature of populist thinking is the sense of betrayal and treachery. Populists usually claim that the people have been betrayed by an establishment. Usually, all political elites are accused of abusing their position of power instead of acting in conformity with the interests of the people as a whole (Mény & Surel, 2002. p. 13). To go further, populists argue that there is a conspiracy of elites against the people (Szacki, 2004, p. 33). This is also based on simple rules derived from the common wisdom of the people and is deeply rooted in local tradition and culture.See All
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