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PART VI Grammar Instruction

Slice ePub September 07, 2014


Grammar Instruction

Many teachers struggle with how to teach grammar. Often, teachers teach it in isolation by exposing students to lists of rules that they are expected to learn and apply in their writing. Peter Smagorinsky (2008) claims that “the teaching of grammar apart from speaking and writing is among the most widely employed, yet least effective, practices in the English teacher’s repertoire” (p. 159). Additionally, the National Council of Teachers of English (1985) states that repetitive grammar drilling “hinders development of students’ oral and written language” (¶1). Furthermore, research confirms the idea that this type of instruction is not only ineffective but also has a negative effect on students’ writing (Graham & Perin, 2007c). It becomes difficult for students to understand when and how to use grammar when it is not embedded within writing instruction. However, knowledge of grammar is essential for constructing texts. It is also critical for diverse learners, such as English learners, who must understand the rules and forms of the English language.

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10 The Cherokee War

Slice PDF May 18, 2014


The Cherokee War

June–July 16, 1839

About ten days after receiving Lamar’s ultimatum, Chief Bowles finally reported in mid-June that he and Chief Big Mush were unable to reach a peaceful agreement. From Fort Lacy, agent Martin Lacy,

Dr. Jowers, John Reagan, and their interpreter Cordray again visited the Cherokee leader near present Alto.

Reagan was impressed with how the Indians and his little negotiating party managed to carry on the talks.

These conferences produced a strong impression on my mind for two reasons. The first was that neither the agent nor the chief could read or write, except that Mr. Lacy could sign his name mechanically; and neither could speak the language of the other. The second was the frankness and dignity with which the negotiations were carried on––neither tried to disguise his purpose nor to mislead the other.1

Bowles told the negotiators that the younger men of his tribe were ready for war, although he and Big Mush wished to avoid it.

According to Reagan, Bowles said that the young braves “believed they could whip the whites; that he knew the whites could ultimately whip them, but it would cost them ten years of bloody frontier war.” The Cherokee leader said that he had no choice but to stand by his people’s wishes, for “if he fought, the whites would kill him; and if he refused to fight, his own people would kill him.”

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Medium 9780596009182

12. System Performance

Slice ePub May 27, 2014

Medium 9780819834096

Role Model

Slice ePub May 27, 2014

O Immaculate Mother, . . . your beauty shows us that the victory of love is possible, that it is certain. Your beauty shows us that grace is stronger than sin. . . .

Mary, help us to trust even more in what is good. Teach us to count on giving freely, on service, on non-violence, and on the power of the truth. Encourage us to stay alert, not to give into the temptation of easy escapes. Give us the strength to face reality and its problems with courage and responsibility. This is what you did when, as a young woman, you were called to stake everything on the Word of the Lord.

Homage to the Immaculate at the Spanish Steps
December 8, 2008

Christians should follow the example of the most holy Virgin Mary because Jesus himself gave her to us as our Mother. He has pointed to her as the model we should follow. It is, in fact, a natural thing that children should have hearts like their mothers and should reflect their mothers’ goodness and virtues.

Signum Magnum, 5
May 13, 1967

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Medium 9780596527327

8. Cascading Style Sheets

Slice ePub May 27, 2014

Stylesheets are the way publishing professionals manage the overall "look" of their publicationsbackgrounds, fonts, colors, and so onfrom a single page to huge collections of documents. Most desktop publishing software supports stylesheets, as do popular word processors, so using stylesheets for HTML documents is obvious.

For the most part, HTML focuses on content over style. Authors are encouraged to worry about providing high-quality information and leave it to the browser to worry about presentation. We strongly urge you to adopt this philosophy in your documentsdon't mistake style for substance.

However, presentation is for the benefit of the reader, and even the original designers of HTML understand the interplay between style and readabilityfor example, through the physical style and header tags. Stylesheets extend that presentation with several additional effects, including colors, a wider selection of fonts, and even sounds so that users can better distinguish elements of your document. But most importantly, stylesheets let you control the presentation attributes for all the tags in a documentfor a single document or a collection of many documentsfrom a single master.

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