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Medium 9781603440943

65 Phoronida of the Gulf of Mexico

Texas A&M University Press PDF


Phoronida of the Gulf of Mexico

Scott Santagata

The Phoronida comprises 2 genera and at least 10 recognized species (Emig 1982), the majority of which exhibit a distinctive larval form known as the actinotroch (Zimmer 1991). Phoronids often occur in conspecific aggregations, and most species exhibit cosmopolitan distributions

(Emig 1982, Zimmer 1991). Traditionally phoronids, brachiopods, and bryozoans have been designated as separate phyla within the Lophophorata and are believed to share morphological characteristics with basal deuterostome phyla (Brusca and Brusca 2003). However, molecular phylogenetic evidence has consistently identified the phoronids and brachiopods as a monophyletic group within the lophotrochozoan protostomes (Halanych et al. 1995,

Cohen 2000, Helfenbein and Boore 2004), and although the bryozoans are also considered lophotrochozoans, their position relative to the phoronids and brachiopods has not been resolved (Halanych 2004, Passamaneck and

Halanych 2004). One proposed resolution of the molecular phylogenetic evidence and Linnaean classification of phoronids and brachiopods was to include the phoronids as a subphylum within the phylum Brachiopoda (Cohen

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Medium 9781847771179

Christ with Urban Fox

John F. Deane Carcanet Press Ltd. PDF
Medium 9781449304751

2. Making It Isometric

Mario Andres Pagella O'Reilly Media ePub

Our game, and other isometric games such as Sid Meiers Civilization, Blizzards Diablo, or Zyngas FarmVille, CityVille, and Caf World use a special form of isometric projection (called dimetric projection) in which tiles (usually diamonds or hexagons) are displayed in a 2:1 ratio with their height at half their width.

Most game developers choose to display tiles with this specific 2:1 ratio because of a problem unique to raster graphics, which we can understand if we know how computer monitors work. Monitorswhether they are CRT, TFT/LCD, LED, or OLEDdisplay pixels in a grid similar to the one in our game, which allows us to draw perfect vertical or horizontal lines. However, if we need to display a line at an angle than 0 or 90, things start to get messy. Figure2-1 shows the resulting problems.

Although the 90, 45, and 0 lines have a regular pattern and can be stitched with a parallel line perfectly, the 30 line doesnt; it contains gaps instead. However, if we use the 2:1 ratio, we can calculate the inverse tangent (arctangent) of 1/2 to get 26.5650, producing a result like Figure2-2.

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Medium 9780596101510

14. Route Maps

Gary A. Donahue O'Reilly Media ePub

Route maps are the bane of many people studying for certification exams. I think the reason for this lies in the way route maps are designed. They're a little bit backward when compared with more common features, like access lists. Why do I consider them backward? Let's take a look.

An access list lists the function of each entry in the entry itself. For example, this line permits any IP packet from any source to any destination:

The syntax is pretty straightforward and self-documenting. Access list 101 permits IP packets from anywhere to anywhere. Simple!

In contrast, a route map written to accomplish the same thing might look like this:

To determine what the route map is for, you have to see what access list 101 is doing, then figure out how the route map is applying it. This route map also permits any IP packet from any source to any destination, but unlike with the access list above, its purpose is not obvious.

Why add a route map to an already simple access list? First, there are instances where an access list is not directly available for use. BGP, for example, makes use of route maps, and, in many cases, does not support direct application of access lists. Second, route maps are far more flexible than access lists. They allow you to match on a whole list of things that access lists cannot:

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Medium 9781591201434

7. Shiitake

Stengler ND, Mark Basic Health Publications ePub



Shiitake (Lentinula Edodes) is regarded as a gourmet food in the West, while in Japan and China shiitake is known to be a valuable food and medicinal agent. Its name comes from the Japanese chestnut tree, shiia, and the Japanese word for mushroom, take. It is also referred to as the “fragrant mushroom” or the “forest mushroom.”

This mushroom is indigenous to Japan, China, and other areas of Asia. It is not found in the wild in America but is cultivated for commercial use. Shiitake is the second most common edible mushroom in the world. The fungi is found on dead and injured hardwood trees, including the chestnut tree, hence the prefix shiia. Shiitake has a medicinal history of more than 1,000 years and was revered by Japanese emperors. It has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat colds, flu, and cardiovascular disease.

Shiitake is used medicinally in two forms in Asia and around the world. This includes lentinan, a purified polysaccharide extracted from the cell wall of the Shiitake fruiting body. The second extract is known as Lentinula edodes mycelium extract, better known as LEM. Both extracts have been shown to enhance immune activity. Both forms have been shown to have a beneficial effect orally but the majority of published data on lentinan has been with the injectable or intravenous forms.

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