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Medium 9781588437129


Simon Foster Hunter Publishing ePub

Chinese history dates back a long, long time. The immense timeline, mythical beginnings, dynastic power struggles and divisions, not to mention the complex modern period, can make gaining a sense of scale and unity in China's history a daunting prospect. The Quick Reference Guide below gives a simplified overview from prehistory to the present. The bracketed sections indicate contemporaneous events in the Western world.

Chinese legend has it that the world was created by Panku and that the parasites living on his body became humans. Civilization then developed with the help of the guiding advances made by the Five Sovereigns, the last of whom, Yu, Tamer of Floods, is also believed to have formed the first of China's dynasties, the Xia, in the 22nd century BC.

Myth and legend aside, homo erectus in China has a history dating back 600,000 years before Christ, first emerging in the great river valleys. In the 1920s the discovery of skull remains, 30 miles from Beijing, reinforced the contested theory of evolution and showed that so-called Peking Man (see Beijing) knew how to use fire and basic stone tools. Homo sapiens emerged between 500,000 and 200,000 BC and gradually developed into modern man. Humans began to speak during the Paleolithic Age, which lasted from 100,000-10,000 BC, but it wasn't until 5000 BC that anything resembling a culture began to develop.

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Medium 9780946439256

14. Anorexia nervosa in an adolescent girl

Frances Tustin Karnac Books ePub

Paul Simon, lyric to ‘I am a Rock’

This lyric by Paul Simon was given to me by Jean, the anorexic patient discussed in Chapters 12 and 13. She said that it expressed how she felt. It illustrates the similarity between the states experienced by an anorexic patient and those of autistic children. Margaret, the patient who will be discussed in this chapter, experienced the primal depression which lies at the root of autism (see Chapter 4).

This was my first clinical paper, written in 1958. I was treating autistic children when I was working with Margaret but, at that time, I had not realized the connection between anorexia and autism. However, it is implicit in the clinical material as it unfolds. Here is the paper as it was published in the British Journal ofMedical Psychology (1958) 31:184-200; some minor editorial changes have been made.

The literature

As early as 1694 Richard Morton wrote of anorexia nervosa as ‘nervous consumption’ and regarded the ‘immediate cause of this distemper’ to be in the ‘system of the nerves’. The early papers on anorexia nervosa, notably those by Lasegue (1873) and Gull (1873), were concerned with establishing the prime importance of emotional factors in its causation. Both papers give descriptions of the strikingly consistent clinical picture presented by such patients. Later papers accept the psycho-genesis of anorexia nervosa, and two important American papers, one by Rahman, Richardson and Ripley (1939) and the other by Waller, Kaufman and Deutsch (1940), demonstrated, by comparative studies of several cases, that such patients show similarity in regard to personality traits, phantasy life and the importance of specific details in the family situation, as well as in the symptomatic picture they present.

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Medium 9781449377441

6. Monitoring

John Allspaw O'Reilly Media ePub

As a sys admin, I became fascinated by the powers of the Internet, and with it the power of the Web. Very soon, I started running my own website on one of the university computers. It was a platform for sharing links. I devoured every single computer book and magazine, went to all the user groups and conferences I could, and constantly surfed the Web for tips on how to structure my website. The site became popular, and some students started to rely on it for their daily work.

After running the site for some time, there was a major power outage on campus, and the web server didn't come back up. I got flooded with emails from students asking me to fix the problem. I quickly restarted the server and went back to tuning it and adding content. This was the first downtime the website experienced.

One morning, the website was down again and I found my mailbox full of emails. Dutifully, I restarted the server, but a few hours later the website was down again. I knew The Problem wasn't due to a power outage, as everything else was still online. And it wasn't due to the network, as my pings were showing no problems.

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Medium 9781449308384

12. Measuring Success

Anastasia Holdren O'Reilly Media ePub

Before spending a dime on Google AdWords, ask yourself this questionwhy am I doing this?

It seems obvious, but many new advertisers mistakenly consider the appearance of an ad, or an ad click, a measure of success. You pay Google for leads, typically measured by clicks on ads. From Googles perspective, an ad click is indeed successAdWords delivered the lead, and Google made money. As shown in Figure12-1, Groupon is willing to pay a specified amount if a person clicks on its top-ranked ad. But, the click is not Groupons ultimate goal.

Figure12-1.Groupon uses AdWords to connect potential customers with their daily deal

The real objective is what happens after the click. You pay Google for ad clicks, so it makes sense to want something tangible in return. The broad goals may be obviousgrow the business, drive traffic to a website, acquire members, etc. With AdWords, you can track if an ad click results in a desirable behavior, called a conversion. In Groupons case, a conversion might be counted when someone registers, as in Figure12-2.

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Medium 9781591201618

4. Diet and Lifestyle

Mackay ND, Douglas Basic Health Publications ePub

The liver is a major component of the digestive system. Although no single diet is universally recommended for people suffering from hepatitis, certain accepted dietary excesses that facilitate the progression of the disease. This chapter discusses a commonsense diet that optimizes liver health and prevents the worsening of hepatitis symptoms.

The impact of diet on liver health is clearly documented in the film Supersize Me. Filmmaker Morgan Spurlock, in conjunction with a team of doctors, records the physiological impact of a thirty-day fast-food diet. In just one month Morgan develops elevated liver enzymes, fatty liver, and erectile dysfunction and gains twenty-two pounds.

The combined opinion of the cardiologist, internist, and general practitioner monitoring Morgan was that he had to stop the diet before his liver failed. In just two weeks Morgans liver enzymes had gone from normal into the alarm range. No one was expecting liver damage to occur so quickly or to be so severe.

Other experiments have shown that obese children often have elevated liver enzymes. When researchers took liver samples from such children, the results were surprising. Fat accumulation, fibrosis, and scarring were evident in childrens livers as early as age fifteen.

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