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Medium 9781783103270

II. The Definition and Results of Pre-Raphaelitism

Slice ePub February 10, 2015





But who exactly was this victor? It is now time to ask the question, since the tournament is over and he has raised the visor behind which he fought. For “Pre-Raphaelitism” is a term that is more mysterious than explicative, and it should be discussed now that the battle has been won, in order to understand what it meant and what happened during the struggle to lead to its acceptance. It was composed of the most diverse and contradictory elements. There was contempt for Raphael, though Hunt, who is not only one of the Pre-Raphaelites, but the Pre-Raphaelite par excellence, tells us in his memoirs that it was the Raphaels in the National Gallery that he admired most in his youth.[19] There was a preference for imitating the thin, hard style of the Primitives, whereas a single glance at the ample bosoms, round shoulders, and sensual mouths of Rosetti’s women evokes all the opulence and splendour of the Renaissance. There was realism, “uncompromising truth”, forbidding the addition of any imaginary element, but it is precisely the imaginary that is striking when one admires some of the school’s works, such as Hunt’s The Light of the World, or Dante’s Dream by Rossetti. Some also saw a transcendent idealism, an offshoot of the great Gothic and religious revival that was called the Oxford Movement, and the Rossettists have been considered unconscious but zealous and faithful collaborators with the Keble, Newman and Pusey. This may be the case, but it does not advance the definition of Pre-Raphaelitism much, for to characterise a Pre-Raphaelite picture by saying that it was inspired by the Oxford Movement is like trying to explain the mechanism of a lock by describing the political opinions of the locksmith. The connections between the Rossettists and “Puseyism” (an English theological movement also known as Tractarianism or the Oxford Movement) could have been much stronger and a hundred times more obvious without leading Hunt to paint on a white canvas or Millais to forbid bitumen from his preparations.[20] A more precise and material definition was needed. So Pre-Raphaelitism was reduced to a few processes, such as the meticulous search for the infinitesimal details that Ruskin desired and the substitution of the living model for the mannequin, with the freedom to choose the model that seemed the most appropriate to convey the idea of the Virgin, Jesus, or a hero, and the obligation, once the model was chosen, to stick to it exactly and to copy it scrupulously, without introducing characteristics of any other figure, nor idealising it according to some memory. But this definition fails completely to include Madox Brown and Rossetti among the Pre-Raphaelites. For Madox Brown never accepted that the artist should avoid fusing several models, and Rossetti, except on two or three occasions, spent his life painting his figures after a mannequin or even after nothing at all, “out of his own consciousness”.[21] If one explains the Pre-Raphaelites as Meissoniers from across the Channel, entomologists of painting, this characterises the first works of Millais and Hunt fairly well, but completely ignores those of Rossetti. When one is in the Tate Gallery and studies the Beata Beatrix next to paintings by the members of the Academy in 1830, the most striking thing is the absence of detail in the work of the Pre-Raphaelite and its abundance in those by the adversaries of Pre-Raphaelitism. Finally, tired of inventing definitions that all exclude some of the objects to be defined, certain critics elevated themselves to very general reflection, and did something like a village preacher who, having become incoherent in his explanations, decides to start speaking in Latin. “Yes,” cried one of them, “the Pre-Raphaelite movement was more than a revolution in the ideals and methods of painting. It was a single wave in a great reactionary tide – the ever-rising protest and rebellion of our century against artificial authority, against tradition and convention in every department of life. It broke out, socially, with the French Revolution; it found voice in the poetic impulse which followed it in Coleridge, Shelley, and Keats; it spread from ethics to politics, it touched all morality and all knowledge, and it affected the whole literature of Europe from philosophy to fiction and from the drama to the lyric poem. Schumann and Chopin breathed it into music. Darwin, by reforming the world of science, laid down in the theory of evolution the basis of this new cosmogony…”[22] Here, one loses one’s footing entirely. A school of art that resembles so many things outside art is not clearly differentiated enough from its rivals that, when it is described, one can recognise a painting that belongs to it. The definition of Pre-Raphaelitism is too narrow if we restrict it to the quest for detail, but becomes too large if we extend it to the conquest of a new philosophy. In one case, Pre-Raphaelitism is not really contained, and in the other, it is contained with too many other things. If one insists on the former, one must admit that the Pre-Raphaelites all broke with their aesthetic conventions to differing degrees, and if one adopts the second, one must conclude that they did not have any specific or marked conventions.

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Medium 9781847770684

Elegy, January 1958 (WUL, 9)

Slice PDF April 24, 2015

The conflict, yet each fears to move.

Watching, unknowing you might think

The struggle was a truce of love.

Far off the total battles wage:

Only these two like beasts before

The final power stay still and wait

The proper opening of their war.

Stillness indeed. And if they could

Stay thus a little longer they

Might break the meaning of their mood

And pause to pity not to slay.

Closer than death’s last shaken word

Two men who guess each other’s pride

Might set their single arms aside

And sheathe their shadows like a sword.


If we learn to read poetry properly, the poet never persuades us to believe anything …

What we learn from Dante, and the Bhagavad Gita, or any other religious poetry is what it feels like to believe that religion.

T.S. Eliot

Washing, washing against the wall

We picked a pebble up there once

Communicated with the stones,

Regarded every thin wave’s fall

And O the wasting of the planet’s edge

Rubbed by the waters and the moon’s

Calm but abrasive privilege.

So many conversations pause

At the sea’s edge. Words halt because the tide

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Medium 9781741798456


Slice ePub July 13, 2014


     Includes »


     Pantai Bira

     Tana Toraja

     Mamasa Valley



     Togean Islands



     Pulau Bunaken

     Tangkoko-Batuangas Dua Saudara Nature Reserve


     Tukangbesi Islands

If you think Sulawesi looks crazy on the map, just wait until you see it for real. The massive island’s multilimbed coastline is drawn with sandy beaches, fringing coral reefs and a mind-boggling variety of fish. Meanwhile, the interior is shaded by impenetrable mountains and jungles thick with wildlife such as the rare nocturnal tarsiers and flamboyantly colourful maleo birds. Cultures have been able to independently evolve here, cut off from the rest of the world by the dramatic topography. Meet the Tana Toraja with their elaborate funeral ceremonies in which buffaloes are sacrificed and balok (palm wine) flows freely; nearby in Mamasa life revolves around the Christian church, and in the far north the Minahasans offer you spicy dishes of everything from stewed forest rat to grilled fish; the coastal regions are mainly inhabited by the Bugis, Indonesia’s most famous seafarers.

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Medium 9781601322548

Skew Estimation in Document Images Based on an Energy Minimization Framework

Slice PDF November 10, 2014


Int'l Conf. IP, Comp. Vision, and Pattern Recognition | IPCV'13 |

Skew Estimation in Document Images Based on an

Energy Minimization Framework

Youbao Tang1, Xiangqian Wu1, Wei Bu2, and Hongyang Wang3

School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China


Department of New Media, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China


Honors School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China


Abstract - Skew estimation is important for document analysis and application. Most existing methods are proposed to deal with the document images consisting of words. In most cases, a complex document may include tables, irregular pictures and other non-text components. To address the challenging problem, this paper proposes a novel skew estimation approach based on an energy minimization framework for skewed scanning document images. In the proposed approach, the foreground pixel state information is computed at first. Then a new cost function that considers both background and foreground information for skew estimation is constructed by using state information. A coarse skew is yielded by employing line fitting technique. Then the coarse skew is refined by iteration so that the cost function gets minimum. The ICDAR2013 DISEC dataset is used to evaluate the proposed approach and the experimental results show its effectiveness.

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Medium 9781855759800

CHAPTER TWO. The structure of the subject

Slice ePub May 22, 2014

Psychosis is characterized by the foreclosure of the Name-of-the-Father and the lack of inscription of the logical operation of separation. We will take up the dialectic between alienation and separation in the structure of the subject in order to demonstrate its particularity in psychosis.

Need, demand, and desire

It was Lacan who introduced the distinction between these three terms. Freud himself never spoke of “demand”. This tripartite distinction was amended during the course of Lacan’s teaching. The term “need” was dropped and the concept of jouissance took its place.

Nevertheless, we find the starting point of this distinction in Freud. In the Project for a Scientific Psychology (1895), Freud presents us with a schema which regulates the search for pleasure. A baby cries in response to a need, but one which is unknown to the observer. Initially, the baby is completely helpless: he cannot move or act so as to eliminate the experience of displeasure. But the cry prompts a specific external action, an intervention by a “primordial other” that will create the conditions for the first “experience of satisfaction”, and the disappearance of this indeterminate need. From then on, when a stimulus emerges, the child will wait for the reappearance of the primary object of satisfaction, which will then pacify it. But between the satisfaction achieved and that which is longed for, there is always a difference, which is called “desire”. Faced with frustration, the psyche brings into action “desire”. Thus, paradoxically, Freud states in The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) the principle of unpleasure mobilizes desire. Together with this imprint of jouissance given by the primordially lost object, a signifying inscription is produced which traces the path of repetition.

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