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Medium 9781780491387

Chapter Twelve: Black and White: Vulnerability or a Sign of Power?

Julie Lokis-Adkins Karnac Books ePub


Black and white: vulnerability or a sign of power?

Unlike the heroines of Monsieur Vénus and La Marquise de Sade, Eliante Donalger, the heroine of La Jongleuse (1990), is a widow at the beginning of the text. Eliante Donalger is a symbol of the sexual anarchy that was associated with a woman living outside the traditional patriarchal household. With theories on female hysteria emerging towards the end of the nineteenth century, single women in particular (widows being included in this category) were believed to be particularly at risk of developing hysterical tendencies. By portraying her heroine as a widow from the beginning of the text, Rachilde again raises questions pertaining to the fin-de-siècle male fear that single women were dangerous and potentially destructive creatures; in the case of La Jongleuse, this female potential is shown from the start of the novel.

Showalter (1991) asserts that sexual anarchy in the nineteenth century began with the “odd woman”; the woman who would not marry and who refused her reproductive duties. Rachilde's novel portrays the type of “odd woman” defined by Showalter, although, in the case of La Jongleuse, the heroine uses her widowed status as a justification for her rejection of these female duties. The central protagonist of La Jongleuse, a young widow of thirty-five, rejects the idea of remarriage and is completely opposed to the feminine duty of maternity. This femme nouvelle emerged as the feminist wave swept through France from 1889 to 1900. This movement gave rise to a generation of self-consciously styled “new women”; young women whose declarations of independence and advocacy of free union spurred what was popularly known as the “marriage crisis” in the press and topical literature of the 1880s and 1890s. La Jongleuse presents a literary heroine who embodies the spirit of the fin-de-siècle both by her non-conformity and her adaptation. The New Woman was concerned with a search for selfhood and a desire to realise her own potential as a human being; to be, in other words, on an equal footing with men. This sought-after female freedom was not received positively by all and, as Bjørhovde explains, many believed that “the New Woman was a selfish and self-centred creature, rejecting her traditional womanly nature and duties in order to realise her own ambitions” (Bjørhovde, 1987, p. 3). This desire to realise female potential and independence is explored by Rachilde in La Jongleuse; however, these aspirations are not achieved without some external resistance.

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Medium 9781449398262

12. Large Data and the Blobstore

Dan Sanderson O'Reilly Media ePub

App Engine limits the sizes of chunks of data that can be passed between the clients, application instances, and services. Incoming requests and outgoing responses cannot exceed 32 megabytes, datastore entities and memcache values cannot contain more than 1 megabyte, and services limit API calls and responses to sizes ranging between 1 and 32 megabytes, depending on the service. These limits help App Engine maintain a responsive infrastructure at a large scale. Google has managed to increase some of these limits by improving and tuning its infrastructure, but the role of limits remains.

1 megabyte data entities and 32 megabyte requests and responses are generous for many purposes, but insufficient for others. Images, audio, video, and large data applications such as scientific computing often involve transmitting and manipulating larger units. Even if most of your user-oriented transactions are small, administrative tasks such as backups and data aggregation can get hefty.

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Medium 9781565920002

D. GNU Bison

Doug Brown O'Reilly Media ePub

The GNU projects yacc replacement is called bison. Briefly, GNU (Gnus Not UNIX) is the project of the Free Software Foundation and is an attempt to create a UNIX-like operating system with source code available publicly (although GNU is not public domain, it is freely available and has a license intended to keep it freely available). Hence, bison is available to anyone. For more information on how to obtain bison, GNU, or the Free Software Foundation, contact:


Users with access to the Internet can FTP bison and all other GNU software from in the directory /pub/gnu.

Parsers generated with some versions of bison are subject to the GNU copyleft software license which sets conditions on the distribution of GNU and GNU-derived software. If you plan to use bison to develop a program distributed to others, be sure to check the file COPYING included with the bison distribution to see if you agree to the terms.

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Medium 9788328302464

1. Wprowadzenie

Backfield, Joshua Helion ePub

Zanim przejdziemy do rzeczywistych przykładów, przyjrzymy się temu, co definiuje programowanie funkcyjne. W szczególności przyjrzymy się komponentom, które składają się na programowanie funkcyjne, i zobaczymy, w jaki sposób odnoszą się one do matematyki.

Programowanie funkcyjne wywodzi się z języka programowania LISP, chociaż sama nazwa paradygmatu została sformułowana dopiero w roku 1977, gdy John Backus opublikował swoją wyróżnioną nagrodą Turinga pracę Can Programming Be Liberated From the von Neumann Style? A Functional Style and Its Algebra of Programs. W swoim referacie Backus omawia wiele kwestii dotyczących budowania aplikacji jako kombinacji równań algebraicznych.

Choć są jeszcze pewne rozbieżności co do definicji programowania funkcyjnego, zasadniczo istnieje zgoda, że charakteryzuje się ono następującymi właściwościami:

typy funkcyjne,

funkcje czyste,


zmienne niemutowalne,

ewaluacja nierygorystyczna,


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Medium 9781605095400


Kevin Kelly Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

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