Functional programming uses functions as the
building blocks of a program and avoids changing the state of data. This
means that a program becomes a sequence of expressions based on the return
values of functions. The return value of a function should only depend on
the values provided as arguments.
Functional programming has gained momentum in recent years with a
dedicated following. The popularity of purely functional languages such as
Clojure, Scala, and Erlang sparked an interest in functional programming
functional-style programming due to functions being first-class objects.
callbacks and closures—that can be used to create cleaner code that is
flexible and powerful.
In this chapter, we’ll cover the following topics:
Cockpit noise enhancement for aircraft type recognition in short-wave speech communication
Donghu Nie1,Xueyao Li1, Gang Qiao 2
College of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
National Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
Abstract - Shortwave speech communications with aircraft cabin noise is a new strategy is used to identify the aircraft type. Speech in other areas is usually regarded as useful signal, but here was the most important interference to aircraft cabin noise signal. To assess speech noise interference, defines the SNR evaluation formula. In order to improve identification recognition rate, put forward a kind of adaptive model for enhancing cockpit noise and suppressing speech. To assess enhancement algorithm, energy spectrum level characteristics is extracted, and the binary classification tree based on support vector machine is designed. Experiment to estimate performance of the above methods was done, the average SNR improves by 22 db, the average recognition rate increases by about 35%. Experiments show that the speech suppression algorithm obtains the higher SNR gain and recognition rate gain. Despite the recognition rate is still low, but it provides the beneficial reference for subsequent research.
AS PROJECT MANAGERS, it's easy to get caught up in meeting our time, cost, scope, and quality baselines. The project quickly becomes an end in itself, and our personal worth becomes entwined with our ability to bring this project in according to these measurable expectations.
We need to focus on the fact that the project is only as successful as the business value it adds to the organization. If we're producing a software product for market, the evaluation factors for "success" are clear. We need to use our project management skills to bring this product to market quicker so we can get it sold to a large portion of the customer base before the competition is able to produce a similar or even better product.
We need to sell to a majority of the marketplace before the demand for this item dries up. We need to design this software so that it is easy for customers to install and learn to use. It needs to be easy to maintain and update.
Many software project managers feel their job is merely to get the software completed. Without connecting the project to the business need, great software could be a failure from the organization's return on investment (ROI) point of view.
Coral reefs are known to harbor the highest biological diversity (biodiversity) of any habitat within the sea. Over 2,000 marine species and almost 300 terrestrial species have been reported from the southern Gulf of Mexico coral reefs and their islands, respectively (Table 6.1 and 6.2). Since a list of this size is beyond the scope of this book, we refer the reader to www.gulfbase.org (Nipper et al. 2004) for complete species checklists that include references, distributions, and habitats.
Few reefs anywhere in the world have a complete species list available for comparison, but regional comparisons for selected taxa are helpful in understanding regional biogeography. Generally speaking, for coral reef organisms, the number of species within a particular group decreases as one moves from the center to the periphery of the tropics. In the case of the Caribbean Sea, latitudinal gradients in species diversity (numbers of species) have been recognized as one makes the transition from Jamaica (center with high diversity) to the Bahamas and east coast of Florida (periphery with lower diversity). Likewise, moving westward into the semienclosed Gulf of Mexico, gradients exist in numbers of species from east to west and south to north. Temperature has been suggested as the single most important environmental factor governing these changes and limitations, but local factors, such as salinity, topography, depth, turbidity, and nutrients, among others, can also account for varying numbers of species or genera in any given locality.
A well-known Zen Buddhist teaching story highlights the need to “practice patience” if one intends to make the most of his or her abilities, gain insight, and achieve happiness.
A young man approached the venerable master, seeking guidance. “If I meditate eight hours a day and study the Sutras four hours every night,” he asked, “how long will it take for me to gain enlightenment?”
“Ten years,” the master replied.
The novice was taken aback. “That long?” he gasped. “Well, then, what if I practice for ten hours a day and study for six? How long then?”
“Twenty years,” said the master.
“But how can that be?” the incredulous novice wondered aloud.
The master shook his head and sighed, “For someone who is in such a hurry, enlightenment does not come easily.”
The master knows very well that spirituality doesn’t operate on a timetable. It requires aspirants to exercise patience through those long plateaus during which enthusiasm wanes and hope falters. The process cannot be hurried, and impatience is antithetical to the whole enterprise. The breathless inquiry—how long will it take— 136suggests to the master that this young novice is easily discouraged. Stop thinking about the future, the master advises. Just settle into your practice and learn to enjoy the subtle yet considerable rewards of being fully present for each new and original moment.