I think more has been written about bad internalized objects similarly disowned than about the denial of good internal forces and objects.
—D. W. Winnicott
Psychoanalytic technique has periodically been modified to reflect historical and theoretical shifts (Lipton, 1983). Over the course of the last twenty-five years the psychoanalytic landscape has changed to reflect the mounting importance context is accorded in the structuring of our developmental and motivational selves. The relational evolution has ushered in mind-numbing changes to psychoanalytic theory and technique. Mainstays of our contemporary technique that were relegated to the heretical just a few years ago are regarded as standard fare today. Witness the debates on the efficacy of the self-revealing analyst (Burke, 1992; Davies, 1994; Greenberg, 1995; Hirsch, 1994; Tansey, 1994) or the use of enactments to further the goals of treatment (Davies, 1994). Increasingly, contemporary models of psychic functioning and organisation (Bromberg, 1998) are informing expanding emergent twists and turns of technique.
This chapter will look at the benefits of performance monitoring and tools such as benchmarking. The value of space within the organisation will be discussed along with the methodology for conducting a space audit in order to assess if the space that an organisation occupies is efficiently utilised or if there is unlocked potential to ‘reshuffle the deck’ and use space in a different manner by adopting different work processes and patterns. The latter part of this chapter will concentrate on service quality and how to identify the gaps that may exist between customer perception and expectation.
Facilities services are fairly fluid and because of this a process of constant realignment and performance monitoring is required along with customer feedback to ensure that the service provision mirrors the service requirement. Intangibles are dominant in ‘pure service delivery’ and tangibles are dominant in ‘pure goods’. Goods or tangibles are by and large purchased remote from the provider, often in a retail setting or an environment away from the production area. The intangible nature of services (see Chapter 2), on the other hand, means that the majority of service encounters are conducted ‘in the factory’ with the provider and the purchaser face to face, that is the service is simultaneously produced and consumed during the ‘moment of truth’. This presents a unique set of problems with respect to the monitoring and managing of such ‘moments of truth’. The vast majority of service encounters are based upon performance which is largely dependent on the interpersonal skills and training of the service provider at the point of contact. Effective training and empowerment of front-line staff is therefore essential if they are to produce a steady state or constant level of service and feel confident enough to make what they consider to be the right decision when they are required to do so. The concept of the ‘servicescape’ will reinforce the links between physical and environmental influences and their effect on the outcome of the overall service provision. This concept links intangible elements with tangibles, enabling the service to be developed to take into account the effect of these external influencing factors, or to be tailored to suit a particular environment – to present a feel of the ‘total facilities experience’ (service wrapping).
Texas boasts a rich heritage as a hotbed of sports in America. For nineteenth-century Texans, who were members of a predominantly agricultural society with deep frontier roots, athletic activities provided a natural cultural expression. Texans reveled in physical competitions, and team sports came readily to people who worked together at log rollings, barn raisings, crop harvests, cattle roundups, and other commercial efforts. As the twentieth century progressed, urbanization and industrialization afforded Texans more time for leisure and recreation, and organized sports subsequently took on added importance in towns and communities across the state. Texans identified with their local teams, attending Friday night football games, rooting for their alma maters, or following the professional franchises. By century’s end the games Texans played, whether amateur or professional, had become another measure of community pride.
The first team sport in Texas, along with the rest of America, was baseball. Originating in eastern cities, baseball was first witnessed by Texans who traveled north in the 1850s, and the Houston Baseball Club was organized before the Civil War. During the Civil War thousands of soldiers learned the game of baseball at hundreds of army camps, and after the war these young veterans brought the sport home to a multitude of towns and country villages. In Texas a game was reported in detail in 1867: on San Jacinto Day, April 21, 1867, the Stonewalls of Houston crushed the R. E. Lees of Galveston, 35–2.1
“A soul in bondage”: the treatment of an abused latency-age boy
Recent work in the field of neuroscience, when linked to psychoanalytic and developmental research, has helped us to develop a better understanding of the impact of trauma upon both the mind and the brain of the developing child. In the previous chapter, Trowell has described some of the effects that traumatic experiences in childhood can have upon development, but in this chapter, I want to focus not so much on the impact of trauma per se, but more specifically on the ways in which a child's traumatic experience enters the consulting room, often in a state “far beyond words” (Lanyado, 2009).
At least since Freud's Beyond the Pleasure Principle, psychoanalysts have understood the powerful link between trauma and the “compulsion to repeat”, and the way in which victims of trauma attempt to master the overwhelming experience by actively re-playing the experience, whether in the form of dreams, flashbacks—or re-enactments in the analytic setting. In the consulting room, post-traumatic states of hyper-arousal or dissociation—both of which may be highly adaptive to an environment that is chaotic, unpredictable, and dangerous—can quickly be triggered by apparently minor stressors, leading the patient to respond in a way that appears quite out of proportion to the current situation. As Parsons and Dermen (1999) have pointed out, for such traumatised children in psychoanalytic treatment, “all manner of objectively harmless or even friendly overtures are [experienced as] deadly provocations” (p. 329).
skmFAQs in a Nutshell skmFAQs has a number of other helpful features, including reporting on FAQ traffic over a period of time. You can also create email templates to send to FAQ entry contributors advising them when posts have been approved.
FAQs are a critical piece of your user-support strategy. skmFAQs saves you time by handing off FAQ creation and maintenance to customers and users, while ensuring the quality of your FAQs by allowing you to control who’s able to submit and change content.
For More Information
The book quoted at the start of this chapter is a good place to start reading about the right level of documentation for your software:
• Framework Design Guidelines: Conventions, Idioms, and Patterns for Reusable
.NET Libraries, by Krzysztof Cwalina and Brad Abrams (Addison-Wesley)
Get some balance into the picture by understanding the brutally lean approach to documentation taken by Extreme Programming’s advocates:
• Extreme Programming Explained: Embrace Change, Second Edition, by Kent