The final element important to the development of teaching expertise is observing and discussing teaching. By definition, such activities require interaction with other teachers. In this chapter, we briefly discuss three ways that teachers might interact: (1) videos of other teachers, (2) coaching colleagues, and (3) instructional rounds. Two or more teachers can fairly easily set up the first two techniques. The third technique requires administrative support.
In chapter 5, we discussed how teachers might examine videos of their own teaching as a form of personal feedback. In this section, we consider how teachers might examine videos of other teachers and discuss the effectiveness of the strategies they observe. This simply requires two or more teachers who agree to meet and discuss instructional strategies and behaviors.
There are a number of sources that can be used for this type of professional interaction. Table 6.1 lists videos from YouTube that might be used to observe and discuss other teachers. These are free to all users of the Internet. When using videos from YouTube, it is important to remember that they are raw footage of classroom activities, and there is no guarantee that they exhibit effective teaching. Visit marzanoresearch.com/classroomstrategies for live versions of all links mentioned in the text.
The psychic experience of the basic layer of the interpersonal field is apprehended by linking it with several known concepts. Pathology within this basic zone is described. The particular psychoanalytic attitude in working from within this basic layer is delineated. Finally some of the dangers of this transformative approach are stressed.
The interpersonal field was originally defined by the Barangers (1983) and further elaborated by Ferro (1992, 1996). The concept of the interpersonal field refers to an immaterial reality. I would like to focus on a very basic and vital aspect of it, the basic layer of the interpersonal field. This text is a trial to give some form to it. The experience of such a basic layer is a psychic phenomenon that is touched upon by several authors, but not dealt with specifically in psychoanalytic literature. By its basic nature it is difficult to define it. My approach is to link several known concepts to give an impression of this peculiar psychic experience, which most readers will certainlyrecognise and probably put in other words and concepts. The aim of this text lies more in the recognition of this psychic experience and finding a way not to close it and trying use its forces than in delineating a clear cut concept and definition.
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Girl under a Japanese Parasol, 1909.
Oil on canvas, 92 x 80 cm.
Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf.
This chapter examines the central importance, in many Expressionist works, of the relationship between man / woman and nature. The nude played a pivotal role in the Brücke’s practice, where it was often an idealised symbol of moral, physical and sexual liberation. The body and sexuality was differently cast in other Expressionist contexts, as further chapters will explore.
Expressionism is often subject to cliché and misunderstanding. It has sometimes been dismissed as an aberrant detour in the onwards march of European modernism. The influential American critic Clement Greenberg felt, for example, that Kandinsky’s work suffered as a result of the context from which it emerged: “Picasso’s good luck was to have come to French modernism directly, without the intervention of any other kind of modernism. It was perhaps Kandinsky’s bad luck to have had to go through German modernism first”. At other times Expressionism has been over-dramatised as an irrational manifestation of a peculiarly Teutonic neurosis. More accurately, it has been described in terms of a “cultivated rebellion”. In order to understand the many forms Expressionism took in Dresden, Berlin, Munich, Vienna and numerous provincial outposts, it is useful to grasp what it was rebelling against.
While XPath includes a powerful set of basic functions, some
applications of XPath need to support capabilities that go beyond
that core. Currently, the most widely used XPath-based application
is, of course, XSLT; aside from proprietary extensions offered
through the various XSLT processors, it acquires these extra
capabilities by way of two commonly used sets of extension functions.
(Don't count on their availability in other
XPath-based contexts, although because of their usefulness they may
be adopted elsewhere as well.)
The first set of functions comes from XSLT itself, providing access
to path, node, and string-value handling facilities necessary for
XSLT processing. The second set of functions comes from the
independent Extensions to XSLT (EXSLT) project, providing support for
a variety of tasks that weren't addressed in either
XPath 1.0 or XSLT 1.0.
When XPath and XSLT were separated into two specifications, it was
clear that there were some functions that relied on information
available only through an understanding of the current XSLT
processing context. These functions were kept in XSLT rather than in
XPath, and (to repeat) may or may not be available in XPath
processing in other contexts. You will see these functions used
frequently in XSLT processing. Table A-1 lists the
additional functions provided by XSLT 1.0.