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Medium 9781449356293

How the Library of Congress is building the Twitter archive

Slice ePub May 27, 2014

Checking in on the Library of Congress Twitter archive, one year later.

by Audrey Watters

In April 2010, Twitter announced it was donating its entire archive of public tweets to the Library of Congress. Every tweet since Twitters inception in 2006 would be preserved. The donation of the archive to the Library of Congress may have been in part a symbolic act, a recognition of the cultural significance of Twitter. Although several important historical moments had already been captured on Twitter when the announcement was made last year (the first tweet from space, for example, Barack Obamas first tweet as President, or news of Michael Jacksons death), since then our awareness of the significance of the communication channel has certainly grown.

Thats led to a flood of inquiries to the Library of Congress about how and when researchers will be able to gain access to the Twitter archive. These research requests were perhaps heightened by some of the changes that Twitter has made to its API and firehose access.

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Medium 9780596003234

8. Physical Security for Servers

Slice ePub May 27, 2014

Physical security is almost everything that happens before you start typing commands on the keyboard. Its the alarm system that calls the police department when a late-night thief tries to break into your building. Its the key lock on your computers power supply that makes it harder for unauthorized people to turn off the machine. Its the locked computer room with the closed-circuit camera that prevents unauthorized physical access to your servers and communications infrastructure. And its the uninteruptable power supply and power conditioners that help isolate your computers from the vagaries of the power grid.

This chapter discusses basic approaches to physical security. It is for people who think that this type of security is of little or no concernunfortunately, the majority of system administrators. Despite the fact that physical security is often overlooked, it is extraordinarily important. You may have the best encryption and security tools in place, and your systems may be safely hidden behind a firewall. However, if a janitor working late at night for your cleaning service decides to steal a laptop or server thats been left out on a table in somebodys cubicle, those other fancy defenses arent going to be much help.

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Medium 9781855759602

10. On the limit-concept: ‘a drawer is a push-button in German’

Slice ePub May 26, 2014

Of all the functions of the living organism, in man sexuality is the one with the closest relations to the psyche.25 On the other hand, an examination of these relations reveals the necessity of creating the domain of psycho-sexuality, a term with no equivalent in the other functions of the organism. The whole problem then becomes that of knowing what is meant by psycho-sexuality. Is there, in the domain of human sexuality, a particular field which that term would designate? If so, what field? How are we to define it in relation to the sexual? How are their relations to be described? Could one, for instance, assuming that the function of sexuality for the organism is reproduction, reserve psycho-sexuality for that which would be defined by separating out the search for pleasure from the goal of reproduction?26 This is no longer possible, as soon as one knows that impregnation too is dependent upon psycho-sexual factors, which are still mysterious as to their operation but whose legitimacy is no longer in question. Could we say, then, that all human sexuality comes under the laws of psycho-sexuality? But how then is one to interpret the effects of hormones, which are not abolished by the hypothesis of the role of psychical factors in problems of fertilisation (as also in those of sexuality), yet without, by the same token, considering them an exhaustive explanation?

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Medium 9781783103928

Early Christianity and Art

Slice ePub March 06, 2015





The early Christians confounded in their horror of heathen idolatry all imitative art and artists; they regarded with decided hostility all images and those who created them as bound to the service of Satan and heathenism. Hence, all visible representations of sacred personages and actions were therefore confined to mystic emblems. Thus, crosses signified redemption; fish, baptism; ships represented the church; serpents, sin or the spirit of evil. When, in the fourth century, the struggle between paganism and Christianity ended in the triumph and dominance of the latter and artistic activity was revived, it was, if not in a new form, in a new spirit through which the old forms were to be gradually moulded and modified. The Christians found the shell of ancient art remaining; traditional handicraft still existed. Certain models of figure and drapery handed down from antiquity, though degenerated and distorted, remained in use, and were applied to illustrate, by direct or symbolic representations the tenets of a purer faith. From the beginning, the figures selected to typify redemption were those of Christ and the Virgin, first separately, and then conjointly as the ‘Mother and Infant’. The earliest monuments of Christian art are to be found, nearly effaced, on the walls and ceilings of the catacombs at Rome, to which the early persecuted martyrs of the faith had fled for refuge. The first recorded representation of Christ is in the character of the ‘Good Shepherd’, and the attributes of Orpheus and Apollo were borrowed to express the character of he who “redeemed souls from hell,” and “gathered his people like sheep.” In the cemetery of St. Calixtus in Rome, the most ancient dipiction was discovered: a head of Christ. The figure is colossal; the face a long oval; the countenance mild, grave, melancholy; the long hair, parted on the brow and falling in two masses on either shoulder; the beard not thick, but short and divided. Here then, obviously imitated from some traditional description (probably the letter of Lentulus to the Roman Senate, assumed to be a fabrication of the third century), we have the first emergence of the type, the generic character since adhered to in the representations of Christ.

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Medium 9780596007263

5. Files, Databases, and XML

Slice ePub May 27, 2014

.NET 1.0 revolutionized Visual Basic data access with a whole new object model for interacting with files, connecting to databases, and manipulating XML. In .NET 2.0, the revolution continues with a slew of minor improvements, some new features, and a tool for generating data access code automatically, all designed to make life better for the VB programmer.

What you won't learn about in this chapter are the new .NET Framework features designed for SQL Server 2005. These include using .NET code to program user-defined data types and stored procedures, SQL Server 2005 notifications, and multiple active recordsets (MARS). For more information about these SQL Server 2005 features, please pay a visit to the MSDN SQL Server 2005 Developer Center at

.NET includes handy DirectoryInfo and FileInfo classes for gathering information about files and directories. However, in .NET 1.x there wasn't any way to get a list of all the drives on your computer without using unmanaged calls to the Windows API. Thankfully, the DriveInfo class finally debuts in .NET 2.0.

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