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Medium 9781780644172

6 Contribution of Epidemiological Knowledge and Control Strategies in the Eradication of Rinderpest Virus

Munir, M. CABI PDF

6 

Contribution of Epidemiological

Knowledge and Control Strategies in the Eradication of Rinderpest Virus

Anke Brüning-Richardson1, Satya Parida2 and Ashley C. Banyard3

1

Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, Leeds, UK;

2

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, UK; 3Animal and

Plant Health Agency, Weybridge, UK

Abstract

Rinderpest was one of the most devastating veterinary diseases affecting even-toed ungulates until it was eradicated globally in 2011. Caused by the rinderpest virus (RPV), at its height rinderpest was prevalent in many parts of Europe, Africa and Asia. An ancient disease documented first by Roman and Greek authors, with more recent descriptions relating to the disease and its spread among susceptible hosts in the 16th and 17th centuries, it became the focus of a global rinderpest eradication programme

(GREP). In the first stages of the GREP, this was feasible due to the development of a vaccine giving lifelong immunity and the establishment of zoosanitary measures, which originated in the 18th century. Advances in the knowledge of RPV biology and virus transmission enabled scientists to identify susceptible hosts among livestock and wildlife and to predict virus spread, which supported the eradication efforts. In addition, improvements in diagnostics and disease surveillance and the application of control strategies based on the epidemiological understanding of viral spread drove the latter parts of the GREP to its final conclusion. This included the application of ELISA and pen-side strip test technologies, and genetic characterization of the virus by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing, which allowed the establishment of distinct virus lineages and the identification of virus reservoirs in the field. Lessons learnt from the GREP may be applicable to the rinderpest-related disease peste des petits ruminants and its causative agent, peste des petits ruminants virus, with global eradication of this virus also a possibility.

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Medium 9781782200819

1 - On learning the gender of the fetus

Mann-Shalvi, Hanni Karnac Books ePub

Preliminary investigation

Preliminary to my research on whether the thought of a son's anticipated/future conscription starts with awareness of the embryo's gender, I spent three days with gynaecologist and ultrasound expert Nili Yanai while she was examining pregnant women. Each time she told a couple they would be having a son, with permission I introduced myself as a researcher interested in their first thoughts on hearing of the embryo's gender. I did not mention my particular interest in parents and their sons, nor did I hint at any connection to conscription.

Ten couples were interviewed, and with each the men remained silent and the women talked about two worrisome events: circumcision, and enlistment into the army. One woman said, “It is wonderful that we have a son, but he will go into the army”; another said, “What immediately came to mind are circumcision and the draft.” And a third said explicitly, “I wanted a daughter. I do not have the strength to cope with sons.” To my question, “What don't you have the strength for?” she answered, “Primarily the draft into the army…it's frightening.” There was something in the parents’ eyes when they commented on the draft of he-who-was-still-an-embryo, as though from the few words, “He will be a soldier”, I was meant to grasp all the hidden significance. As shown in this book, these code words encrypt all of Jewish and Israeli history.

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Medium 9781574415032

Part I: Texas Identity

Edited by Richard B. McCaslin, Donald E. Chipman, and Andrew J. Torget University of North Texas Press PDF

Texas Identity: Alternatives to the Terrible Triplets

Walter L. Buenger

For more than a century Texas historians have nurtured three competing views on Texas identity. These terrible triplets, now well into a vital and vigorous old age, have a family resemblance and a similar effect on the study of the state. One stubbornly insists that Texas remains and always has been unique and exceptional. Another brusquely argues that Texas, at least since the early 19th century, has been southern and nothing except the 19th century matters much anyway. The third chimes in, often petulantly, that no, Texas has always been and remains western. A case can be made for all three positions, but not for all people and all times in the

Texas past. All three share the family traits of obscuring as much as they reveal, of being excessively focused on the period 1820–1900, of being inspired by present realities, and of ignoring change over time. Most terrible of all, the cacophony the three raise has grown boring and shows little promise of leading to fresh insights about the Texas past.1

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Medium 9781782203049

Chapter Fifteen: Contributions Part IV: Implications for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy

Karnac Books ePub

Arlene Kramer Richards and Lucille Spira

This section moves the discussion of myths and psychoanalytic psychotherapy as it focuses on a woman character as she embraces her sexuality and a folk tale with mythic-like characters. Issues about marital relationships, self-relations, love, ageing, and the power of a woman's body are prominent themes.

Molly Bloom

What has the character of mighty Molly Bloom to tell us about psychoanalytic therapy? She thinks as a mature woman, a woman of thirty-five who has a teenage daughter and has lost a baby son. She is a mourner who has spent ten years avoiding mourning. Her never completed mourning prevented her from allowing herself sexual intercourse for all of those years. Her fear of mourning prevents her, as Dr Schwaber so persuasively shows us, from allowing herself to conceive another child who might die as her son did. Dr Schwaber shows us that she hates menstruating. The thought that the menses is “pooh” connects it with death. Faeces is “pooh” and faeces is death. Her hatred of “bottoms” is hatred of connection to faeces and death. A woman who cannot bear the thought of death destroys the possibility of creating life. She cannot tolerate those atheists who cannot create. She refuses to create. She hates that in herself.

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Medium 9789383828432

Ch_13_F

P.S.Sona Laxmi Publications PDF

Determination of Efficiency of a Centrifugal Pump 51

EXPERIMENT

13

DETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCY

OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

AIM

To determine the co efficient of discharge of a centrifugal pump.

To determine the overall efficiency of centrifugal pump.

To determine the efficiency of the centrifugal pump.

REQUIREMENTS

The centrifugal pump assemble

(1)

Stop watch

(1)

Energy meter

(1)

PRINCIPLE

Pump is a device which converts mechanical energy to hydraulic energy. Hydraulic energy is in the form of Pressure energy. In a centrifugal pump the mechanical energy is converted into pressure energy by centrifugal force.

A Centrifugal Pump is a roto dynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase the pressure of a fluid. They are commonly used to move liquids through a piping system. Its purpose is to convert energy of a prime mover (an electric motor or turbine) first into velocity or kinetic energy and then into pressure energy of a fluid that is being Pumped. The energy change occurs by virtue of two main parts of the pump, the impeller and the volute or diffuser. The impeller is the rotating part that converts driver energy into the kinetic energy. The volute or diffuser is the stationary part that converts the kinetic energy into pressure energy. The overall system efficiency is dependent on motor efficiency, pump efficiency (velocity of the impeller, impeller diameter, number of blades etc) and the total head developed.

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