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Medium 9781449365875

2. Security

Bruner, Jon O'Reilly Media ePub

Adding software on top of machines and connecting them to networks creates tempting targets for malicious hackers. The evolution of industrial internet security is much like the evolution of PC security: many systems that are now being networked have historically enjoyed security by isolation, and, just as the original generation of PC operating systems didn’t anticipate connections to the Internet, many industrial systems were not built with outside contact in mind.

The inherent scalability of software means that a single exploit can propagate fast; once discovered, an exploit can be used against lots of machines. Think of a car’s odometer: the move to digital mileage counts, stored in software, makes it more difficult to tamper with the readout, but it expands the prospective target of an exploit from just one car (for mechanical odometers) to every car that uses the same software.

Tools like Shodan[9], a search engine for the Internet of Things, and Digital Bond’s Basecamp[10], a database of industrial control exploits, illustrate the scale of the industrial internet and its vulnerabilities.

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Medium 9780596521462

11. Adding Shadows and Placing Your Model in Google Earth

Chris Grover O'Reilly Media ePub

As mentioned earlier, some challenges come with using a two-dimensional tool (your computer screen) to build and display three-dimensional models. This chapter focuses on a great, easy-to-use tool that makes it easier to meet the challenge and makes your models look greatshadows. You may not think about it in your day-to-day life, but shadows provide a ton of visual information about distance, position, and depth. You instinctively process that information to cope with your three-dimensional environment. By adding shadows to your SketchUp models, you communicate valuable messages to your audience in a way that they instinctively understand. And of course those shadows make your models look oh-so-much cooler.

The good news is that SketchUp shadows are easy to add. You don't need to pull out a No. 2 pencil and laboriously add shading at just the right angles to your model. You don't even have to add and position light sources in your 3-D modeling window (as you do with other 3-D graphics programs). In SketchUp, adding shadows to your model is almost as easy as flicking a light switch.

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Medium 9781449387860

2. Hubs and Switches

Gary A. Donahue O'Reilly Media ePub

In the beginning of Ethernet, 10Base-5 used a very thick cable that was hard to work with (it was nicknamed thick-net). 10Base-2, which later replaced 10Base-5, used a much smaller cable, similar to that used for cable TV. Because the cable was much thinner than that used by 10Base-5, 10Base-2 was nicknamed thin-net. These cable technologies required large metal couplers called N connectors (10Base-5) and BNC connectors (10Base-2). These networks also required special terminators to be installed at the end of cable runs. When these couplers or terminators were removed, the entire network would stop working. These cables formed the physical backbones for Ethernet networks.

With the introduction of Ethernet running over unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables terminated with RJ45 connectors, hubs became the new backbones in most installations. Many companies attached hubs to their existing thin-net networks to allow greater flexibility as well. Hubs were made to support UTP and BNC 10Base-2 installations, but UTP was so much easier to work with that it became the de facto standard.

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Medium 9781449323172

21. Narratives and Situations

Andrew Hinton O'Reilly Media ePub

The Universe is made of stories, not of atoms.

MURIEL RUKEYSER

BEFORE COMPOSING SOMETHING new WE SHOULD UNDERSTAND WHAT IS ALREADY THERE. But we’ve already established that there is no stable, persistent “context” to begin with—that it emerges through action. So, how do we understand the current state if it won’t sit still? The key is in studying the experience from the points of view of the agents involved and how they think and behave. Those points of view provide the dynamic landscape—and the principles we derive from it—that puts everything else into perspective. These agents can be individual users, groups of them, organizations, and even digital actors. Let’s begin with how humans work—and how they understand their experience as narrative. Recall our working definition: context is an agent’s understanding of the relationships between the elements of the agent’s environment.

The environment exerts more control over that understanding and action than we often realize, but that influence over the experience has its limits. Ultimately, the final interpretation and recollection of any experience is up to the individual who has it.

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Medium 9781626562028

2 Lead with Presence

Helene Lerner Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

MYTH

It’s not possible to learn how to be a dynamic leader.

TRUTH

Leadership presence can be cultivated and is available to me.

Leading with presence is all about the signals you send out. It is how you portray yourself—through your words, actions, and appearance—as someone whom others trust and want to follow.

Many men and women buy into the myth that the presence exhibited by prominent leaders is something they were born with. In reality, leading with presence is a skill like any other; it can be cultivated with awareness and dedicated practice. Leading with presence involves being authentic, owning our strengths as well as our weaknesses, and speaking up on issues with integrity and passion.

As you might have imagined, the rules for leading with presence are much more complicated and nuanced for women than for men. As women, we face the double-edged sword of gender stereotypes. The lines between being assertive or being aggressive, taking charge or being overly ambitious, and being nice or being ineffective are so blurred (by both sexes) that hitting the right note can feel impossible. In Executive Presence: The Missing Link between Merit and Success, author and CEO of the Center for Talent Innovation, Sylvia Ann Hewlett, sums up the situation: “If you’re tough, you’re a bitch and no one wants to work for you, but if you’re not tough, you’re not perceived as leadership material and you won’t be given anyone to work for you. It’s a high-wire act that every capable woman has had to perform, and the higher she goes, the more perilous the act.”1

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