In the last chapter, you learned that iMovie stores your raw footage in Event libraries, the repositories for the clips youll use as you build your movie. Now that youve imported some footage, its time to learn how you (and iMovie) work with events as you craft your film, and how you handle everyday housekeeping for eventsto rename, merge, move, or delete them.
iMovie stores two types of files in an event: source material and projects. Source material includes everything you need to create your movie, like the raw footage you imported earlier, along with any songs and photos you want to use (youll learn how to import those in Chapters Chapter11 and Chapter12). A project is your movie-in-progress, described in Chapter4.
Right now, your events include the individual clips you imported in the last chapter. To see what an event looks like, go to the iMovie Library (under Libraries on the left side of the iMovie window) and click an event name. iMovie displays all the clips inside that event in the Event browser on the right (see Figure3-1).
Now that you know how to enter and exit Emacs as well as the basics
of working with files, it's time to learn how to
move around in and edit files. Emacs offers lots of ways to move
around in files. At first, you might find it confusing that there are
so many ways to do the same thing. Be patientas you learn, the
confusion will lessen, and you'll begin to
of Emacs commands. The more ways you learn, the fewer keystrokes
you'll need to get to the part of the file you want
If you want to practice commands while you're
readingwhich will help you learn fasterstart by typing
a page or two from anything you happen to have handy; the newspaper
is fine. That will give you some text to work with as you learn the
editing skills described in this chapter. Don't
worry if you make mistakes; just keep on typing. You can correct any
mistakes after you learn the basic editing skills outlined here.
Learning any editor is primarily a matter of forming certain finger
habits rather than memorizing what the book says. You will learn the
right finger habits only if you start typing.
I have defined ‘management’ as, ‘getting things done through other people’; and ‘leadership’ as, ‘attempts on the part of the leader (influencer) to affect (influence) the behaviour of a follower’ (or as I would have it, joiner). I have not sought to draw any further distinction because I take the view that leadership is an integral part of management. What I want to do now in this chapter, is to explore some of the existing notions of leadership. It will be clear that the total effect of nearly everything that has been written in this book is a challenge to the macho concept of leadership, characterized as:
• one where the leader takes all the important decisions and gallantly leads ‘his’ team into battle, be that a physical or metaphorical battle; and
• one where the manager is in total control of everything that occurs and that their views and desires are the only ones that count.
It would be silly to suggest that existing views of leadership are without value. Naturally, there will be times when it is totally appropriate for the manager to lead from the front by making decisions for the team. However, I am going to challenge the notion that this sort of leadership, which is predominantly regarded as the norm, is far from being what is desirable leadership and that what is required is a very different approach.
Even if you're the only actual human being who uses your Linux
system, understanding how to manage user accounts is importanteven more so if your system hosts multiple
User accounts serve a number of purposes on Unix systems. Most
prominently, they give the system a way to distinguish between
different people who use the system for reasons of identification and
security. Each user has a personal account with a separate username
and password. As discussed in "File Ownership and
Permissions," later in this chapter, users may set permissions
on their files, allowing or restricting access to them by other users.
Each file on the system is "owned" by a particular user, who may set
the permissions for that file. User accounts are used to authenticate
access to the system; only those people with accounts may access the
machine. Also, accounts are used to identify users, keep system logs,
tag electronic mail messages with the name of the sender, and so
Numbers are as fundamental to computing as breath is to human life.
Even programs that have nothing to do with math need to count the items in
a data structure, display average running times, or use numbers as a
source of randomness. Ruby makes it easy to represent numbers, letting you
breathe easy and tackle the harder problems of programming.
An issue that comes up when you're programming with numbers is that
there are several different implementations of "number," optimized for
different purposes: 32bit integers, floating-point numbers, and so on.
Ruby tries to hide these details from you, but it's important to know
about them because they often manifest as mysteriously incorrect
The first distinction is between small numbers and large ones. If
you've used other programming languages, you probably know that you must
use different data types to hold small numbers and large numbers (assuming
that the language supports large numbers at all). Ruby has different
classes for small numbers (Fixnum) and
large numbers (Bignum), but you don't
usually have to worry about the difference. When you type in a number,
Ruby sees how big it is and creates an object of the appropriate