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Medium 9781936764327

Chapter 4 Clarifying Essential Learning Outcomes

Nicholas Jay Myers Solution Tree Press ePub

Having key learning standards outlined in our essential outcomes helps focus the teacher’s energy on what is essential versus what is just important. It helps guide instruction as well as informing teachers what key concepts students have already covered and what path students will take in the following year.


Ensuring systemwide clarity about the priority learning standards critical for student mastery was a top priority as District 54 evolved in its understanding of how to effectively reculture its schools to incorporate PLC concepts and principles. District 54 closely adhered to the essential learning outcomes (or essential learning) defined by DuFour, DuFour, Eaker, and Many (2010) as the “critical skills, knowledge, and dispositions each student must acquire as a result of each course, grade level, and unit of instruction” (p. 3). Essential outcomes serve as the foundation for designing initial instruction, developing common assessments, and determining which skills teachers need to emphasize during intervention periods for students who struggle. Well-written essential outcomes provide teachers with a road map of skills students must have as they map out curriculum and instructional plans for the entire school year. Instruction and assessment must be purposefully connected to essential outcomes to significantly impact student learning.

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Medium 9780253021069

9 Ethics, Politics, and Messianism

Michael L. Morgan Indiana University Press ePub

In a well-known interview, Richard Kearney asked Emmanuel Levinas if the “ethical criterion of the interhuman” were not employed by him as a “sort of messianic eschatology.” Levinas objected to the expression “eschatology” and yet accepted the proposal that the “ethical relation with the other” is messianic, but only when properly understood. That is, he rejected the idea of a historical eschaton, an end or goal, whether we think of it as a face-to-face exposure to an absolutely other, God, or as the completion or perfection of our face-to-face encounters with human others. Ethics has no end; it is not about a historical telos. As he put it, “I have described ethical responsibility as insomnia or wakefulness precisely because it is a perpetual duty of vigilance and effort that can never slumber.” The key word here is “perpetual.” Love, he says, has something incessant and impermanent about it. He refers to the image of Talmudic sages going from meeting to meeting, always discussing the law, in this life and the next, without end. Love or the ethical is like this process that demands ongoing wakefulness and attention.1 If ethics is messianic, it is an episodic messianism that is never complete, and if politics ought to meet ethical standards, it too requires attention and correction, moment to moment.

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Medium 9789380386355


Satinder Bal Gupta and C.P. Gandhi Laxmi Publications PDF




In the previous chapter, we have discussed various operations on sets to generate more sets from given sets. We now discuss one more property of sets which is known as cartesian products of sets which will help us in understanding the concept of relations.


Let A and B be any two sets. Then by an ordered pair of elements, we mean a pair (x, y) where x ∈ A, y ∈ B.

For example, the ordered pairs (1, 1), (2, 3), (3, 5) represent different points in a plane.


Let A and B be any two non-empty sets. Then the cartesian product of the sets A and B is the set of all ordered pairs (x, y) such that x ∈ A and y ∈ B and it is denoted by A × B. Thus

A × B = {(x, y) : x ∈ A and y ∈ B}.

For example, consider A = (1, 2), B = (3, 4, 5). We find A × B, B × A, A × A, B × B.


A × B = {(1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (2, 3), (2, 4), (2, 5)}

B × A = {(3, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1), (4, 2), (5, 1), (5, 2)}

A × A = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2)}

B × B = {(3, 3), (3, 4), (3, 5), (4, 3), (4, 4), (4, 5), (5, 3), (5, 4), (5, 5)}.

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Medium 9781605095868

CHAPTER 1 I Have Negotiaphobia?!

Hutson, Don Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

The sign in Terminal H of Miami International Airport proclaimed, “Welcome to Miami.” As Jay Baxter read this message and then looked for the arrow directing him to baggage claim, he doubted that he had ever felt more welcome anytime and anyplace in his life. He and his wife, Laura, had won a spot on the Top Producers Award Trip his company held annually for all salespeople who exceeded their sales quota by more than 10 percent during the prior year.

That company, XL Information Solutions, had considered canceling the trip this year in an effort to reduce costs. The organization’s president stepped in at the last minute and saved the event with the idea of making it not only a reward but also a relevant educational experience. The president’s memo mentioned getting a return on the investment, but everyone knew changes in tax laws restricting a company’s ability to write off such excursions played a major role in the repositioning. Jay was glad the possibility of a cancellation had never leaked to his wife, Laura. She had been counting on this trip for six months, and it was the one legitimate explanation he could give her for all those late dinners and missed family events he had delivered to those he loved so much over the past year.

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Medium 9781442229082


Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Paul J. Griffiths and Reinhard Hütter, editors

Reason and the Reasons of Faith (New York and London: T&T Clark, 2005), ix + 373 pp.

Reviewed by John R. Betz, Loyola College in Maryland, Baltimore, MD

Responding in part to John Paul II’s 1998 encyclical, Fides et ratio, this rich collection of essays, Reason and the Reasons of Faith, edited with an introduction by Paul Griffiths and Reinhard Hütter, is the fruit of a three-year, biannual ecumenical colloquium on the topic of faith and reason held at the Center for Theological Inquiry at Princeton, and it is an intellectual treasury well worth sorting through. Like the papal encyclical, which sought to address widespread skepticism regarding truth and the very possibility of knowledge, this collection proceeds from the sober recognition that “faith and reason are presently in crisis” (1).

On the one hand, there is the philosophical crisis of reason. Whereas throughout the history of philosophy, at least until Hegel (excepting the various strains of skepticism, ancient and modern), reason was regarded as a distinct, even godlike faculty by means of which we are able to apprehend the real and discover the truth, today, after Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud, the modern “masters of suspicion”—not to mention the schools of American pragmatism and French deconstruction—reason has come to be viewed as merely instrumental, indeed, as Hütter observes, as “little more than a coping mechanism or a regulative fiction driven and directed by instincts and desires it can hardly perceive, much less rule” (160). As a result, stripped both of its contemplative vocation and its moral authority over the passions—its eternal prospect of the unum, verum, et bonum discredited either as the illusion of childhood or as the product of an alienated consciousness, in any case, as irrelevant to social “progress”—reason is cursed henceforth to labor as mere techne in the service of modern man: the instrument of a “brave new world” without ultimate aim or meaning, which knows no exterior but the terrifying spaces of Pascal and boasts of technological triumph even as it sinks ever deeper into nihilistic despair (see 161). On the other hand, connected to the philosophical crisis of reason but informed by a long-standing theological suspicion regarding reason’s postlapsarian soundness, there is a widespread theological crisis regarding the role of reason in matters of faith. Hence, witnessing to this crisis, one sees a general shift within modern theology (largely under the influence of Barth, who supposedly follows Anselm) from dialectic to narrative, from ratio to rhetoric, from compelling argument to the beauty of the Christian proclamation (beauty being the last salvageable transcendental); hence, too, one sees an abandonment of metaphysics, natural theology, and natural law—to the point that one’s apologetic resources are limited to the aesthetic “fittingness” of revelation or the “glory” and (therein) “credibility” of love. Far, then, from being irrelevant to theology, the present crisis of reason, and of reason in faith, is a matter of utmost importance, forcing theology to rethink its own understanding of reason’s nature, its limitations, and its role in the self-understanding of faith (intellectus fidei).

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