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|M. Egle Laufer||Karnac Books||ePub|
The superego plays a crucial role in determining the success or failure of the adolescent’s move toward establishing the final. sexual organization. Many of the problems that may arise during adolescence result from the inability of the superego to allow for a change in the earlier identifications and in the quality of its demands on the ego, despite the pressure to do so following physical sexual maturity.
Anna Freud (1937), in a chapter entitled “Instinctual Anxiety During Puberty,” says, “In so far as the superego is at this period still cathected with libido derived from the relation to the parents, it is itself treated as a suspicious incestuous object… . The ego alienates itself from the superego also. To young people this partial repression of the superego, the estrangement from part of its contents, is one of the greatest troubles of adolescence. The principal effect of the rupture … is to increase the danger which threatens from the instincts” (p. 182, italics added). This view is widely understood to mean that the adolescent’s tendency toward certain forms of compulsive activity— delinquency, aggressive or sexual behavior—results from this temporary lack of a superego to control his behavior, because of the need to detach himself from the oedipal objects and their internalized representative. Jacobson (1964) also describes “the disruption” that takes place in the relationship of the ego to the superego during adolescence. She describes how a gradual restructuring of the ego has to occur and how a new ego ideal structure has to be formed to create an “effective bridge” once more between the ego and the superego.See All Chapters
|Nathalia Brodskaya||Parkstone International||ePub|
Degas was closest to Renoir in the Impressionist’s circle, for both favoured the animated Parisian life of their day as a motif in their paintings. Degas did not attend Gleyre’s studio; most likely he first met the future Impressionists at the Café Guerbois. It is not known exactly where he met Manet. Perhaps they were introduced to one another by a mutual friend, the engraver Félix Bracquemond, or perhaps Manet, struck by Degas’ audacity, first spoke to him at the Louvre in 1862. Two months later Degas exhibited his canvases with Claude Monet’s group, and became one of the most loyal of the Impressionists: not only did he contribute works to every one of their exhibitions except the seventh, he also participated very actively in organising them. All of which was curious, because he was distinct in many ways from the other Impressionists.
Edgar Degas came from a completely different milieu than did Monet, Renoir and Sisley. His grandfather René-Hilaire de Gas, a grain merchant, had been forced to flee from France to Italy in 1793 during the French Revolution. Business prospered for him there. After establishing a bank in Naples, de Gas wed a young girl from a rich Genoan family. Degas preferred to write his name simply as Degas, although he happily maintained relations with the numerous de Gas family relatives in Italy. Enviably stable by nature, he spent his entire life in the neighbourhood where he was born. He scorned and disliked the Left Bank, perhaps because that was where his mother had died. In 1850 Edgar Degas completed his studies at Lycée Louis-le-Grand, and in 1852 received his degree in law. Because his family was rich, his life as a painter unfolded far more smoothly than did that of the other Impressionists.See All Chapters
|Simon Foster||Hunter Publishing||ePub|
|Wilma King||Indiana University Press||ePub|
SLAVE CHILDREN AND YOUTH
Oh, child! thou art a little slave: And all of thee that grows,
“The Slave Mother’s Address to her Infant Child”
If enslaved girls and boys enjoyed a childhood, it was because their parents and fictive kin made that possible. They stood between children and slaveholders or others who sought to control boys and girls psychologically and break their will to resist. Loving adults tried to protect them from emotional or physical harm regardless of its source. To illustrate this matter, two seemingly disparate anecdotes are useful. The first involves the potential harm to three enslaved children ranging in age from seven to seventeen that prompted Tarsekayahke, a Cherokee warrior also known as Shoeboots, to submit a petition to the Cherokee Nation in 1824. The document provides evidence of many things, including legal realities, ambiguities about slavery, and parental concerns. In a noteworthy statement, Shoeboots expressed concern when he said, “Knowing what property I may have, is to be divided amongst the Best of my friends, how can I think of them having bone of my bone and flesh of my flesh to be called their property … and for them and their offspring to suffer for generations yet unborn.” His declaration acknowledges paternity and ownership while recognizing that his children Polly, John, and Elizabeth were simultaneously persons and property. The letter addresses the possibility that his children would fall into the hands of individuals, defined as “the Best of my friends,” who could treat his son and daughters more like chattel than as children entitled to a childhood. Shoeboots worried that his grandchildren would also be subjected to enslavement. To shield his children and their children from slavery in perpetuity, Tarsekayahke submitted his humble petition asking that his chattel property become free citizens of the Cherokee Nation.1See All Chapters
|Joe Kissell||TidBITS Publishing, Inc.||ePub|
Next to pie crusts, nothing strikes fear into the hearts of inexperienced cooks more than gravy. Everyone has heard horror stories about gravy that was too lumpy, too thick, or too thin, or tasted burnt. And yet, my feeling about gravy is that its only a problem because most of the recipes are unnecessarily complicated, and because a few fundamental principles of gravy making are poorly understood.
In a nutshell, turkey gravy has only two (or maybe three) major components:
Broth: Generally, the broth is made by cooking the neck and giblets, adding liquid, and straining. Were going to save some time and effort by supplementing the giblet flavors with a healthy dose of store-bought chicken broth.
Roux: A roux is nothing more than a heated mixture of flour and fatthe fat can be butter, oil, meat drippings, or whatever. This is what thickens the gravy. The roux gets darker, and acquires a stronger flavor, the longer you cook it. But cook it too long or at too high a temperature, and it can burn. Well make a quick and easy butter roux.See All Chapters
Business & Economics