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Medium 9781449316402

C. A Relational Approach to Missing Information

C. J. Date O'Reilly Media ePub

The book Database Explorations: Essays on The Third Manifesto and Related Matters, by Hugh Darwen and myself (see AppendixG), describes a variety of approaches to the problem of missing information, all of which avoid the use of, or apparent need for, SQL-style nulls. The present appendix is based on a chapter from that book, and it describes one of those approaches in detail. The approach in question is known as the decomposition approach, because it involves decomposing, in a variety of ways, relvars that might appear to require nulls (or something like them) into ones that dont. In other words, the emphasis is on designing the database in such a way as to avoid a perceived need for nulls. As a consequence, the approach:

Has no notion of null or any other construct thats allowed to appear anywhere a value is expected and yet isnt itself a value

Relies exclusively on classical two-valued logic (2VL), instead of three-valued logic (3VL) or, more generally, n-valued logic (nVL) for some n > 2

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Medium 9781782201502

CHAPTER THIRTEEN Holiday from psychoanalysis: as August approaches

Leonard Shengold Karnac Books PDF


Holiday from psychoanalysis: as August approaches

The English winter, ending in July,

To recommence in August

—Byron, “Don Juan”

We will grieve not, rather find

Strength in what remains behind …

In the soothing thoughts that spring

Out of human suffering …

In years that bring the philosophic mind.

—William Wordsworth, “Intimations of Immortality” (1807)


s an aging analyst I can sense, as August approaches, some increase in anxiety, sadness, and weariness—some grieving—at the prospect of separation from my patients. Alongside this is an awareness of what Wordsworth (ibid.), expressing resolution in relation to the passing of childhood and youth, calls “the philosophic mind”, which can usually put loss and change into perspective. And so I can look forward to a long and active vacation, as well as a relief from (analytic) year-end weariness. The analyst also frequently faces



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Medium 9780253002365

Chapter Sixteen

Gregory Schwipps Indiana University Press ePub

Tuesday after work Ollie drove over to Hapgood, a pilgrim in a dented truck seeking Coondog as one might go visit a sage. If it were possible for one man alone to figure out this current situation, he felt certain it’d be done by now. He’d sure as hell given over enough man-hours to thinking about it. When he was a lot younger his mother had asked him to sort chickens by breed and age, and Summer was turning into something like that. When he got a thought chased into a corner he went back for another one and the first one shot between his legs or squirmed out a hole in the boards. He felt like he had loose feathers floating in his head. When he pulled up to the house, Coondog was out in the yard, his legs sprawled underneath the giant bucket truck he used in his tree trimming business. The hood was up. Ollie walked over and nudged the leg with his foot.

Coondog recognized the boot of his only true friend. “What say, stranger? Long time no see, you bastard.”

“You could say I been real busy.”

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Medium 9781782204190

Chapter Two: The Abandonment of the Seduction Theory—Reasons

Dietmar Seel Karnac Books ePub

The foundation for a neurosis would accordingly always be laid in childhood by adults….

—Sigmund Freud, 1896c, pp. 208f

The seduction theory was published in 1896 in three essays (1896a; 1896b; 1896c). In these essays Freud put forward the idea that every hysteria goes along with “sexual experiences in childhood consisting in the stimulation of the genitals, coitus-like acts, and so on” (ibid., p. 206) that were “practised…by adults who were strangers…nursery maid or governess or tutor, or…a close relative” and “brother and sister” (ibid., p. 207). A further indispensable “psychological precondition” for neurotic symptom formation is that these real infantile sexual scenes exist as “unconscious memories” (ibid., p. 211). The “hysterical symptoms are derivatives of memories which are operating unconsciously which…only exercise a pathogenic action later, when they have been aroused…in the form of unconscious memories” (ibid., p. 212; italics omitted).

In his famous letter to Fliess, dated 21 September 1897, Freud admits that his idea that every hysteria is based on real “sexual experiences in childhood” with other persons (1896c, pp. 206f.), was a fallacy. “I no longer believe in my neurotica”, he writes and justifies this change by the “continual disappointments in my attempts at bringing an analysis to a real conclusion”, the “absence of the complete successes”, his “surprise at the fact that in every case the father, not excluding my own, had to be blamed as a pervert” and that “such a widespread extent of perversity towards children is, after all, not very probable,” the “consideration that in the most deep-reaching psychosis the unconscious memory does not break through, so that the secret of childhood experiences is not disclosed even in the most confused delirium” and “the certain discovery that there are no indications of reality in the unconscious, so that one cannot distinguish between the truth and fiction that is cathected with affect” (1985c, pp. 259f.).

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Medium 9780253356758

7 Emerging into the Carboniferous: The First Phase

Jennifer A. Clack Indiana University Press ePub

The Carboniferous World

At the end of the Devonian, a major extinction event hit most groups of vertebrates, both marine and nonmarine. Although an earlier extinction event at the Frasnian–Famennian boundary has been recognized for many years, it appears to have affected invertebrates, especially marine ones, with most vertebrate groups essentially passing through it unscathed. By contrast, a massive vertebrate faunal turnover at the end of the Devonian, associated with the geological phenomenon known as the Hangenberg event, saw the extinction of many groups of vertebrates such as placoderms, and most acanthodians and sarcopterygians (Sallan and Coates 2010). Of those acanthodians and sarcopterygians that did survive, most were represented by only a remnant of their former populations, and these too eventually became extinct. After the extinction, a few groups notably survived well. These included the ray-finned fishes, which had begun their radiation in the Late Devonian but which expanded greatly in numbers, species, and niches in the Early Carboniferous. The chondrichthyans, although they had been persistently present through the Devonian, again became more widespread and numerous, particularly later in the Early Carboniferous. Finally, the tetrapods really began their radiation at this stage. From this point on, the multidigited forms from the Devonian were rare or absent, and five-digited forms became dominant.

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