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Medium 9781855750050

31. Assessment As Intervention

T. Berry Brazelton Karnac Books ePub

In presenting the foregoing cases in some detail, our purpose is to show how the dual perspective outlined earlier in the book (observational/interpretive analytic, developmental/psychoanalytic) applies to clinical work. While there is no attempt to exhaust the variety of clinical situations, these nine cases were chosen to represent common issues and typical problems in assessment and intervention. Since the cases were drawn from the very different types of practice of the two authors, they may also suggest the variety of orientations typical among those who care for new parents and young children. We have also tried to balance the cases between those that present themselves as the infant’s problem (prematurity, feeding problems) or that of the parents (depression, anxiety). In making this initial distinction, we recognize that both partners always make a contribution and that the symptom which brings parents to us may not be as significant as the underlying conflict or “imaginary interaction.”

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Medium 9781449381813

7. Tables

David Sawyer McFarland O'Reilly Media ePub

The HTML <table> tag has had a somewhat infamous existence in the world of web design. It was originally intended to present scientific data in a spreadsheet-like manner. But as the Web grew, graphic designers got into the web design game. They wanted to recreate the types of layouts seen in magazines, books, and newspapers (in other words, they wanted to make good-looking websites). The most reliable tool at the time was the <table> tag, which designers morphed into a way to create columns, sidebars, and, in general, precisely position elements on a page.

The wheel has turned again. Today, with nearly everyone on the planet using advanced browsers like Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, and Opera, web designers use a more facile page-styling techniqueCSS-based layout. Table-based layout is an aging dinosaur that produces pages heavy with code (which means they download slower), are hard to update, and are hostile to alternative browsers such as screen readers, mobile phones, and text-only browsers.

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Medium 9781855751552

4. Five Readings of Freud’s “Observations on Transference-Love”

Roy Schafer Karnac Books ePub

Like so many other of Freud’s works of genius, “Observations on Transference-Love” (1915a) is wide in scope, deep in understanding, and forceful in the way it challenges conventional modes of thought. But it is a short piece, and the price of its brevity is that it deals with each of its major topics in only an introductory or cursory fashion. It is also a relatively early work. Consequently, the essay calls for clarification, amplification, coordination of its various propositions, interpretation of implied or latent content, and methodological and epistemological reconsideration. And in responding to this call, we should express our own views and concerns as contemporary psychoanalysts now that more than seventy-five years have passed since the essay was written; we should not simply try to establish exactly what Freud “had in mind,” for Freud’s topic is now and will always be of great concern to all analysts.

The five perspectives on or readings of “Observations onTransference-Love” will supplement one another, each bringing out different aspects of Freud’s text. In certain respects my readings emphasize the major contributions of the essay; in other respects, its limitations and its controversial aspects. The essay’s difficulties derive either from its having been written during the relatively early years of the development of psychoanalysis or from Freud’s philosophical, social, and personal commitments, values, and biases.

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Medium 9781855751972

3. Mode of operation of unconscious mental processes as revealed by pathological forms of cognition

Karnac Books ePub

Thomas Freeman

The forms that thinking, perceiving, and remembering assume under the conditions of mental pathology provide a glimpse of a mode of mental functioning that occasionally plays a part in the mental life of the healthy. Pathological forms of cognition take the place of goal-directed, abstract thinking and a veridical representation of reality. Aberrant forms of cognition are a feature of the functional psychoses (the schizophrenias, maniacal psychoses) and organic mental states. Thinking, perceiving, and remembering are disorganized. Through a detailed study conducted over some time, it becomes possible to identify the action of the unconscious mental processes that lead to pathological forms of cognition.

Pathological forms of thinking as substitutes for rational thought

Verbal communication with patients suffering from non-remitting schizophrenias and organic mental states is impeded by perseveration (Freeman, 1969; Schilder, 1953). Utterances are repeated automatically. They continue despite the patient’s attention being drawn to another subject. Perseveration is usually associated with pathological thought content. There is also a lack of grammatical construction. Nouns, verbs, and conjunctions are omitted. In the case of the non-remitting schizophrenias, this disorder of thinking may be preceded or followed by utterances that occur in the colloquial and vernacular speech of the mentally healthy. An individual may describe another by a single perceived characteristic. The following is an utterance of a male schizophrenic patient who said: “See that nurse—that’s a ‘for Christ’s sake’ nurse.” What he could not say was: “He (the nurse) is always shouting ‘for Christ’s sake’/’

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Medium 9781855750326

7. Resistance, the Self-Induced Blockage of the Maturing Process (1960)

Harry Guntrip Karnac Books ePub

IN the last chapter the question was raised as to why the infantile weak dependent ego persists so stubbornly in the deep unconscious. We are now so used to saying that the causes of neuroses lie back in childhood that we may miss the vital point of this problem. It is true that the origins of the trouble were in early childhood, but the actual emotional cause of instability and weakness in the personality in later life is something that is going on in the personality right here and now. It is a peculiar feature of the mental organization of the person (his endopsychic structure) which keeps him in that original state of basic fear and weakness, and perpetuates it and even intensifies it as time goes on. We have stated this in non-technical language as the fear and hate of weakness in the face of the necessities of living, and in comparison with other people. But we need to show how this fear and hate come to be permanently embodied in the organizational structure of the psyche.

Antilibidinal Resistance to Psychotheraphy

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