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Medium 9780946439423

4. From Matriarchate to Patriarchate

Erich Neumann Karnac Books ePub

In our culture the necessary development by which the child emerges from the primal relationship to achieve greater independence corresponds to a transition from the psychological matriarchate in which the mother archetype is dominant to the psychological patriarchate in which the father archetype is dominant.

In The Origins and History of Consciousness we showed that this transition is indispensable to the development of consciousness. But there the accent was on the universally human and the symbolic. Here we shall attempt to indicate a few of the ontogenetic processes in the child which correspond to this transition.

This development can be described as a whole because the progression from the matriarchate of the primal relationship to the patriarchate applies both to boys and to girls. The male child’s release from his mother is described at length in The Origins and History of Consciousness. The difference in the development of the girl will at least be touched upon in a later section of this book, since special importance must be attached to the mother-daughter relationship as the first phase of the specifically feminine development.

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Medium 9780946439782


Wilfred R. Bion Karnac Books ePub

Q.I would like to hear you speak about the realistic aspect of projective identification in relation to the mother with the baby.

B. The problem is how to formulate verbally what is a visual image—the mother and the baby. One of the advantages of such a visual image is that it is relatively simple and not as complicated as trying to trace the counterpart in the lives and mentalities of adults. Taking this simpler formulation, let us imagine that the baby is very upset and feels afraid of an impending disaster like dying, which it expresses by crying. That kind of language may be both comprehensible and disturbing to the mother who reacts by expressing anxiety—T don’t know what’s the matter with the child!’ The infant feels the mother’s anxiety and impatience and is compelled to take its own anxiety back again. Contrast this with a different situation. Suppose the mother picks up the baby and comforts it, is not at all disorganized or distressed, but makes some soothing response. The distressed infant can feel that, by its screams or yells, it has expelled those feelings of impending disaster into the mother. The mother’s response can be felt to detoxicate the evacuation of the infant; the sense of impending disaster is modified by the mother’s reaction and can then be taken back into itself by the baby. Having got rid of a sense of impending disaster, the infant gets back something which is far more tolerable. Susan Isaacs has described a situation in which the baby could be heard saying something like ‘oo el, oo el’, which the mother recognized was an imitation of herself saying Veil, well’. In that way the infant was able to feel comforted by a good mother inside and could make reassuring, comforting noises to itself exactly as if the mother was there all the time.

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Medium 9780253014467

Conclusion: Could the Muslim Question Have Been Solved?

Elena I. Campbell Indiana University Press ePub

Could the Muslim Question Have Been Solved?

This book has examined the creation, development, and internal contradictions of a set of perceptions about Muslims, bundled under the construct of the Muslim Question. The conception of a “question” about Muslims—in Russian, vopros— served for educated Russians as a way of articulating their anxieties about the place and roles of Muslims in an Orthodox Russian imperial state. The Muslim Question was thus a set of changing and contending ideas, a concept whose various meanings emerged as imperial Russia embarked after the Crimean War on the project of modernizing its empire. The Question continued to produce a vital and highly contested set of issues until the end of the tsarist regime. Could the challenges it involved have been solved?

Russian imperial development and expansion throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were part of a broader pattern of European expansion that occurred more generally in the Muslim world. Imperialism required Europeans to design policies that would assure their control over Muslim dominions and solidify their empires’ statuses as great powers.

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Medium 9780596514983

11. Testing and Quality Assurance

Bryan O'Sullivan O'Reilly Media ePub

Building real systems means caring about quality control, robustness, and correctness. With the right quality assurance mechanisms in place, well-written code can feel like a precision machine, with all functions performing their tasks exactly as specified. There is no sloppiness around the edges, and the final result can be code that is self-explanatoryand obviously correctthe kind of code that inspires confidence.

In Haskell, we have several tools at our disposal for building such precise systems. The most obvious tool, and one built into the language itself, is the expressive type system, which allows for complicated invariants to be enforced staticallymaking it impossible to write code violating chosen constraints. In addition, purity and polymorphism encourage a style of code that is modular, refactorable, and testable. This is the kind of code that just doesnt go wrong.

Testing plays a key role in keeping code on the straight-and-narrow path. The main testing mechanisms in Haskell are traditional unit testing (via the HUnit library) and its more powerful descendant, type-based property testing, with QuickCheck, an open source testing framework for Haskell. Property-based testing that encourages a high-level approach to testing in the form of abstract invariants functions should satisfy universally, with the actual test data generated for the programmer by the testing library. In this way, code can be hammered with thousands of tests that would be infeasible to write by hand, often uncovering subtle corner cases that wouldnt be found otherwise.

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Medium 9780253012586

25. Okpo, 2002

Anand Pandian Indiana University Press ePub

Ayya has been tense today, his voice erupting in frustration as we follow him through the town of Okpo. He can’t remember very much Burmese and needs our relatives here to query, translate, and explain. There was the fire that swept through the whole town in 1986. There are the many new buildings that came up afterward. And memory itself is an unreliable guide.

“This is where I must have been born,” he says at one point along the main road, looking toward one set of awnings. But this too proves impossible to verify. “I can’t find anything,” he admits.

Then we approach his father’s tomb, following a line of railway tracks beyond the town and down into the shrubs and brush below the embankment. The cement structure looks solid and implacable in the midst of this green tangle, the parallel lines of its design barely deflected nearly seven decades later by the few pieces that have chipped away. Ayya’s face breaks into a warm and rich smile when he steps close to the tomb. “It’s my writing,” he says proudly, pulling out his eyeglasses to look more closely. “Yes, it’s my handwriting.”

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